A genetic assessment of the English bulldog

Overview of attention for article published in Canine Genetics and Epidemiology, July 2016
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  • In the top 5% of all research outputs scored by Altmetric
  • High Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age (99th percentile)

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Title
A genetic assessment of the English bulldog
Published in
Canine Genetics and Epidemiology, July 2016
DOI 10.1186/s40575-016-0036-y
Pubmed ID
Authors

Niels C. Pedersen, Ashley S. Pooch, Hongwei Liu, Pedersen, Niels C, Pooch, Ashley S, Liu, Hongwei

Abstract

This study examines genetic diversity among 102 registered English Bulldogs used for breeding based on maternal and paternal haplotypes, allele frequencies in 33 highly polymorphic short tandem repeat (STR) loci on 25 chromosomes, STR-linked dog leukocyte antigen (DLA) class I and II haplotypes, and the number and size of genome-wide runs of homozygosity (ROH) determined from high density SNP arrays. The objective was to assess whether the breed retains enough genetic diversity to correct the genotypic and phenotypic abnormalities associated with poor health, to allow for the elimination of deleterious recessive mutations, or to make further phenotypic changes in body structure or coat. An additional 37 English bulldogs presented to the UC Davis Veterinary Clinical Services for health problems were also genetically compared with the 102 registered dogs based on the perception that sickly English bulldogs are products of commercial breeders or puppy-mills and genetically different and inferior. Four paternal haplotypes, with one occurring in 93 % of dogs, were identified using six Y-short tandem repeat (STR) markers. Three major and two minor matrilines were identified by mitochondrial D-loop sequencing. Heterozygosity was determined from allele frequencies at genomic loci; the average number of alleles per locus was 6.45, with only 2.7 accounting for a majority of the diversity. However, observed and expected heterozygosity values were nearly identical, indicating that the population as a whole was in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE). However, internal relatedness (IR) and adjusted IR (IRVD) values demonstrated that a number of individuals were the offspring of parents that were either more inbred or outbred than the population as a whole. The diversity of DLA class I and II haplotypes was low, with only 11 identified DLA class I and nine class II haplotypes. Forty one percent of the breed shared a single DLA class I and 62 % a single class II haplotype. Nineteen percent of the dogs were homozygous for the dominant DLA class I haplotype and 42 % for the dominant DLA class II haplotype. The extensive loss of genetic diversity is most likely the result of a small founder population and artificial genetic bottlenecks occurring in the past. The prominent phenotypic changes characteristic of the breed have also resulted in numerous large runs of homozygosity (ROH) throughout the genome compared to Standard Poodles, which were phenotypically more similar to indigenous-type dogs. English bulldogs have very low genetic diversity resulting from a small founder population and artificial genetic bottlenecks. Although some phenotypic and genotypic diversity still exists within the breed, whether it is sufficient to use reverse selection to improve health, select against simple recessive deleterious traits, and/or to accommodate further genotypic/phenotypic manipulations without further decreasing existing genetic diversity is questionable.

Twitter Demographics

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Mendeley readers

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Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Belgium 1 10%
Unknown 9 90%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Bachelor 3 30%
Student > Master 2 20%
Student > Ph. D. Student 2 20%
Researcher 2 20%
Other 1 10%
Other 1 10%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine 4 40%
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 3 30%
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 2 20%
Social Sciences 1 10%
Medicine and Dentistry 1 10%
Other 0 0%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 1833. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 26 February 2017.
All research outputs
#276
of 7,351,662 outputs
Outputs from Canine Genetics and Epidemiology
#1
of 39 outputs
Outputs of similar age
#29
of 249,257 outputs
Outputs of similar age from Canine Genetics and Epidemiology
#1
of 2 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 7,351,662 research outputs across all sources so far. Compared to these this one has done particularly well and is in the 99th percentile: it's in the top 5% of all research outputs ever tracked by Altmetric.
So far Altmetric has tracked 39 research outputs from this source. They typically receive a lot more attention than average, with a mean Attention Score of 14.3. This one scored the same or higher as 38 of them.
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We're also able to compare this research output to 2 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one has scored higher than all of them