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Association of Animal and Plant Protein Intake With All-Cause and Cause-Specific Mortality

Overview of attention for article published in JAMA Internal Medicine, August 2016
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About this Attention Score

  • In the top 5% of all research outputs scored by Altmetric
  • One of the highest-scoring outputs from this source (#6 of 3,028)
  • High Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age (99th percentile)
  • High Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age and source (98th percentile)

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Title
Association of Animal and Plant Protein Intake With All-Cause and Cause-Specific Mortality
Published in
JAMA Internal Medicine, August 2016
DOI 10.1001/jamainternmed.2016.4182
Pubmed ID
Authors

Mingyang Song, Teresa T. Fung, Frank B. Hu, Walter C. Willett, Valter D. Longo, Andrew T. Chan, Edward L. Giovannucci, Song, Mingyang, Fung, Teresa T, Hu, Frank B, Willett, Walter C, Longo, Valter D, Chan, Andrew T, Giovannucci, Edward L, Valter Longo

Abstract

Defining what represents a macronutritionally balanced diet remains an open question and a high priority in nutrition research. Although the amount of protein may have specific effects, from a broader dietary perspective, the choice of protein sources will inevitably influence other components of diet and may be a critical determinant for the health outcome. To examine the associations of animal and plant protein intake with the risk for mortality. This prospective cohort study of US health care professionals included 131 342 participants from the Nurses' Health Study (1980 to end of follow-up on June 1, 2012) and Health Professionals Follow-up Study (1986 to end of follow-up on January 31, 2012). Animal and plant protein intake was assessed by regularly updated validated food frequency questionnaires. Data were analyzed from June 20, 2014, to January 18, 2016. Hazard ratios (HRs) for all-cause and cause-specific mortality. Of the 131 342 participants, 85 013 were women (64.7%) and 46 329 were men (35.3%) (mean [SD] age, 49 [9] years). The median protein intake, as assessed by percentage of energy, was 14% for animal protein (5th-95th percentile, 9%-22%) and 4% for plant protein (5th-95th percentile, 2%-6%). After adjusting for major lifestyle and dietary risk factors, animal protein intake was weakly associated with higher mortality, particularly cardiovascular mortality (HR, 1.08 per 10% energy increment; 95% CI, 1.01-1.16; P for trend = .04), whereas plant protein was associated with lower mortality (HR, 0.90 per 3% energy increment; 95% CI, 0.86-0.95; P for trend < .001). These associations were confined to participants with at least 1 unhealthy lifestyle factor based on smoking, heavy alcohol intake, overweight or obesity, and physical inactivity, but not evident among those without any of these risk factors. Replacing animal protein of various origins with plant protein was associated with lower mortality. In particular, the HRs for all-cause mortality were 0.66 (95% CI, 0.59-0.75) when 3% of energy from plant protein was substituted for an equivalent amount of protein from processed red meat, 0.88 (95% CI, 0.84-0.92) from unprocessed red meat, and 0.81 (95% CI, 0.75-0.88) from egg. High animal protein intake was positively associated with mortality and high plant protein intake was inversely associated with mortality, especially among individuals with at least 1 lifestyle risk factor. Substitution of plant protein for animal protein, especially that from processed red meat, was associated with lower mortality, suggesting the importance of protein source.

Twitter Demographics

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Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 214 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Australia 2 <1%
United Kingdom 2 <1%
Poland 2 <1%
United States 2 <1%
Netherlands 2 <1%
Switzerland 1 <1%
Italy 1 <1%
Mexico 1 <1%
Finland 1 <1%
Other 3 1%
Unknown 197 92%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Bachelor 37 17%
Student > Master 35 16%
Researcher 30 14%
Other 27 13%
Student > Ph. D. Student 26 12%
Other 59 28%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Medicine and Dentistry 76 36%
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 38 18%
Nursing and Health Professions 32 15%
Unspecified 21 10%
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 9 4%
Other 38 18%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 2370. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 15 June 2018.
All research outputs
#300
of 11,376,742 outputs
Outputs from JAMA Internal Medicine
#6
of 3,028 outputs
Outputs of similar age
#19
of 265,410 outputs
Outputs of similar age from JAMA Internal Medicine
#2
of 151 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 11,376,742 research outputs across all sources so far. Compared to these this one has done particularly well and is in the 99th percentile: it's in the top 5% of all research outputs ever tracked by Altmetric.
So far Altmetric has tracked 3,028 research outputs from this source. They typically receive a lot more attention than average, with a mean Attention Score of 117.9. This one has done particularly well, scoring higher than 99% of its peers.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 265,410 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one has done particularly well, scoring higher than 99% of its contemporaries.
We're also able to compare this research output to 151 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one has done particularly well, scoring higher than 98% of its contemporaries.