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Vitamin blood concentration and vitamin supplementation in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in European facilities

Overview of attention for article published in BMC Veterinary Research, January 2016
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Title
Vitamin blood concentration and vitamin supplementation in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in European facilities
Published in
BMC Veterinary Research, January 2016
DOI 10.1186/s12917-016-0818-1
Pubmed ID
Authors

Angela Emilia Ricarda Gimmel, Katrin Baumgartner, Annette Liesegang, Gimmel, Angela Emilia Ricarda, Baumgartner, Katrin, Liesegang, Annette

Abstract

As fish eaters bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in human care need to receive daily vitamin supplementation, because whole thawed fish lacks certain vitamins. However, the exact concentration of supplementation has not been established and is a matter of discussion. To ensure adequate vitamin supplementation in pets, vitamin blood concentrations are measured. This is not a common practice in dolphins. The objective of the present study was to collect information about vitamin supplementation in bottlenose dolphins and on vitamin blood concentrations of healthy animals in European facilities. In addition, these results were compared with blood levels of wild animals. Conclusions on how to provide bottlenose dolphins in human care with an effective vitamin supplementation will then be drawn. Initially, fish-handling techniques and vitamin supplementation were evaluated by questionnaire, which was sent to 25 European facilities that house bottlenose dolphins. Secondly, blood samples from 57 dolphins living in 10 facilities were taken and sent by mail to a reference laboratory. They were analysed for retinol, thiamine pyrophosphate, cobalamin, calcidiol and tocopherol. The blood concentrations were then correlated with vitamin supplementation, fish handling techniques and pre-existing blood concentrations of free-ranging dolphins. Finally, the data was subjected to a standard analysis of variance techniques (ANOVA) and a linear model analysis. Fish was mainly thawed in a refrigerator. Further, the 95 % confidence interval for retinol blood concentrations was 0.048 to 0.059 mg/l and for tocopherol 17.95 to 20.76 mg/l. These concentrations were 27 and 53 %, respectively, higher than those found in free-ranging animals. In contrast, calcidiol concentrations (143.9-174.7 ng/ml) of the dolphins in human care were lower than in blood found for free-ranging animals. Regarding thiamine pyrophosphate and cobalamin, concentrations ranged between 0.42 and 0.55 mg/l and 175.55 and 275.22 pg/ml respectively. No reference concentrations for free-ranging Tursiops truncatus were found. These findings suggest an over-supplementation of retinol (vitamin A) and tocopherol (vitamin E) in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) housed in human care. Therefore, vitamin A supplementation should not exceed 50,000 IU per animal per day and vitamin E supplementation should be around 100 IU per kg fed fish per day.

Twitter Demographics

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Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 26 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Unknown 26 100%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Master 5 19%
Student > Bachelor 4 15%
Student > Ph. D. Student 3 12%
Researcher 3 12%
Other 2 8%
Other 6 23%
Unknown 3 12%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine 8 31%
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 6 23%
Medicine and Dentistry 3 12%
Nursing and Health Professions 1 4%
Environmental Science 1 4%
Other 3 12%
Unknown 4 15%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 1. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 07 September 2016.
All research outputs
#6,331,062
of 8,342,643 outputs
Outputs from BMC Veterinary Research
#806
of 1,280 outputs
Outputs of similar age
#178,373
of 252,381 outputs
Outputs of similar age from BMC Veterinary Research
#46
of 78 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 8,342,643 research outputs across all sources so far. This one is in the 13th percentile – i.e., 13% of other outputs scored the same or lower than it.
So far Altmetric has tracked 1,280 research outputs from this source. They receive a mean Attention Score of 2.7. This one is in the 19th percentile – i.e., 19% of its peers scored the same or lower than it.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 252,381 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one is in the 16th percentile – i.e., 16% of its contemporaries scored the same or lower than it.
We're also able to compare this research output to 78 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one is in the 19th percentile – i.e., 19% of its contemporaries scored the same or lower than it.