↓ Skip to main content

Longer Contact Times Increase Cross-Contamination of Enterobacter aerogenes from Surfaces to Food

Overview of attention for article published in Applied & Environmental Microbiology, September 2016
Altmetric Badge

About this Attention Score

  • In the top 5% of all research outputs scored by Altmetric
  • One of the highest-scoring outputs from this source (#1 of 5,920)
  • High Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age (99th percentile)
  • High Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age and source (99th percentile)

Mentioned by

news
249 news outlets
blogs
24 blogs
twitter
961 tweeters
facebook
19 Facebook pages
googleplus
1 Google+ user
reddit
6 Redditors
video
1 video uploader

Readers on

mendeley
34 Mendeley
Title
Longer Contact Times Increase Cross-Contamination of Enterobacter aerogenes from Surfaces to Food
Published in
Applied & Environmental Microbiology, September 2016
DOI 10.1128/aem.01838-16
Pubmed ID
Authors

Robyn C. Miranda, Donald W. Schaffner, Miranda, Robyn C, Schaffner, Donald W

Abstract

Bacterial cross-contamination from surfaces to food can contribute to foodborne disease. The cross-contamination rate of Enterobacter aerogenes was evaluated on household surfaces using scenarios that differed by surface type, food type, contact time (<1, 5, 30 and 300 s), and inoculum matrix (tryptic soy broth or peptone buffer). The surfaces used were stainless steel, tile, wood and carpet. The food types were watermelon, bread, bread with butter and gummy candy. Surfaces (25 cm(2)) were spot inoculated with 1 ml of inoculum and allowed to dry for 5 h, yielding an approximate concentration of 10(7) CFU/surface. Foods (with 16 cm(2) contact area) were dropped on the surfaces from a height of 12.5 cm and left to rest as appropriate. Post transfer surfaces and foods were placed in sterile filter bags and homogenized or massaged, diluted and plated on tryptic soy agar. The transfer rate was quantified as the log % transfer from the surface to the food. Contact time, food and surface type all had a highly significant effect (P<0.000001) on log % transfer of bacteria. The inoculum matrix (TSB or peptone buffer) also had a significant effect on transfer (P = 0.013), and most interaction terms were significant. More bacteria transferred to watermelon (∼0.2-97%) relative to other foods, while fewer bacteria transferred to gummy candy (∼0.1-62%). Transfer of bacteria to bread (∼0.02-94%) and bread with butter (∼0.02-82%) were similar, and transfer rates under a given set of condition were more variable compared with watermelon and gummy candy. The popular notion of the "five second rule" states food dropped on the floor for less than five seconds is "safe", because bacteria need time to transfer. The rule has been explored by a single study in the published literature and on at least two television shows. Results from two academic laboratories have been shared through press release, but remain unpublished. We explore this topic using four different surfaces (stainless steel, ceramic tile, wood and carpet), four different foods (watermelon, bread, bread with butter and gummy candy), four different contact times (<1, 5, 30 and 300 s), and two bacterial preparation methods. Although we show that longer contact times result in more transfer, we also show that other factors including the nature of the food and the surface are of equal or greater importance. Some transfer takes place "instantaneously" at times <1 s, disproving the "five second rule".

Twitter Demographics

The data shown below were collected from the profiles of 961 tweeters who shared this research output. Click here to find out more about how the information was compiled.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 34 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
United Kingdom 1 3%
United States 1 3%
Colombia 1 3%
Unknown 31 91%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Bachelor 8 24%
Researcher 7 21%
Student > Ph. D. Student 6 18%
Student > Master 4 12%
Student > Postgraduate 4 12%
Other 5 15%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 12 35%
Medicine and Dentistry 5 15%
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 4 12%
Nursing and Health Professions 2 6%
Immunology and Microbiology 2 6%
Other 9 26%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 2486. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 06 November 2017.
All research outputs
#198
of 8,652,326 outputs
Outputs from Applied & Environmental Microbiology
#1
of 5,920 outputs
Outputs of similar age
#11
of 254,657 outputs
Outputs of similar age from Applied & Environmental Microbiology
#1
of 125 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 8,652,326 research outputs across all sources so far. Compared to these this one has done particularly well and is in the 99th percentile: it's in the top 5% of all research outputs ever tracked by Altmetric.
So far Altmetric has tracked 5,920 research outputs from this source. They typically receive a little more attention than average, with a mean Attention Score of 6.4. This one has done particularly well, scoring higher than 99% of its peers.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 254,657 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one has done particularly well, scoring higher than 99% of its contemporaries.
We're also able to compare this research output to 125 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one has done particularly well, scoring higher than 99% of its contemporaries.