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Citronellal-induced disruption of membrane homeostasis in Candida albicans and attenuation of its virulence attributes

Overview of attention for article published in Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical, August 2016
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Title
Citronellal-induced disruption of membrane homeostasis in Candida albicans and attenuation of its virulence attributes
Published in
Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical, August 2016
DOI 10.1590/0037-8682-0190-2016
Pubmed ID
Authors

Shweta Singh, Zeeshan Fatima, Saif Hameed

Abstract

There is an increasing burden of multidrug resistance. As a result, deciphering the mechanisms of action of natural compounds with antifungal activity has gained considerable prominence. We aimed to elucidate the probable mechanism of action of citronellal, a monoterpenoid found in the essential oil extracted from Cymbopogon plants, against Candida albicans. Drug susceptibility was measured by broth microdilution and spot assays. Ergosterol levels were estimated using the alcoholic potassium hydroxide method and H+ extrusion was assessed by monitoring the glucose-induced acidification of the external medium. Virulence traits were studied by hyphal morphogenesis and biofilm formation, along with fungal cell adherence to polystyrene surface and human oral epithelial cells. Citronellal showed anticandidal activity against C. albicans and non-albicans species of Candida at a minimum inhibitory concentration of 1 mg/ml. Citronellal interfered with membrane homeostasis, which is the major target of known antifungal drugs, by increasing the hypersensitivity of the fungi to membrane-perturbing agents, reducing ergosterol levels, and diminishing glucose-induced H+ extrusion. In addition, oxidative and genotoxic stresses were induced via an increased production of reactive oxygen species. Furthermore, citronellal inhibited the virulent attributes of yeast-to-hypha transition and biofilm formation. It also reduced cell adherence to polystyrene surface and the human oral epithelial cells. This is the first study to propose the cell membrane, morphogenetic switching, biofilm formation, and cell adherence of Candida albicans as potential targets for the anticandidal activity of citronellal. However, clinical investigations on the therapeutic applications of citronellal are required.

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Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 64 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Brazil 1 2%
Unknown 63 98%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Master 12 19%
Researcher 8 13%
Student > Ph. D. Student 8 13%
Student > Bachelor 6 9%
Student > Postgraduate 3 5%
Other 6 9%
Unknown 21 33%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 10 16%
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 8 13%
Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science 6 9%
Medicine and Dentistry 5 8%
Immunology and Microbiology 5 8%
Other 9 14%
Unknown 21 33%