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Pax6 associates with H3K4-specific histone methyltransferases Mll1, Mll2, and Set1a and regulates H3K4 methylation at promoters and enhancers

Overview of attention for article published in Epigenetics & Chromatin, September 2016
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  • In the top 25% of all research outputs scored by Altmetric
  • Good Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age (74th percentile)

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11 tweeters

Citations

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15 Dimensions

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39 Mendeley
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Title
Pax6 associates with H3K4-specific histone methyltransferases Mll1, Mll2, and Set1a and regulates H3K4 methylation at promoters and enhancers
Published in
Epigenetics & Chromatin, September 2016
DOI 10.1186/s13072-016-0087-z
Pubmed ID
Authors

Jian Sun, Yilin Zhao, Rebecca McGreal, Yamit Cohen-Tayar, Shira Rockowitz, Carola Wilczek, Ruth Ashery-Padan, David Shechter, Deyou Zheng, Ales Cvekl

Abstract

Pax6 is a key regulator of the entire cascade of ocular lens formation through specific binding to promoters and enhancers of batteries of target genes. The promoters and enhancers communicate with each other through DNA looping mediated by multiple protein-DNA and protein-protein interactions and are marked by specific combinations of histone posttranslational modifications (PTMs). Enhancers are distinguished from bulk chromatin by specific modifications of core histone H3, including H3K4me1 and H3K27ac, while promoters show increased H3K4me3 PTM. Previous studies have shown the presence of Pax6 in as much as 1/8 of lens-specific enhancers but a much smaller fraction of tissue-specific promoters. Although Pax6 is known to interact with EP300/p300 histone acetyltransferase responsible for generation of H3K27ac, a potential link between Pax6 and histone H3K4 methylation remains to be established. Here we show that Pax6 co-purifies with H3K4 methyltransferase activity in lens cell nuclear extracts. Proteomic studies show that Pax6 immunoprecipitates with Set1a, Mll1, and Mll2 enzymes, and their associated proteins, i.e., Wdr5, Rbbp5, Ash2l, and Dpy30. ChIP-seq studies using chromatin prepared from mouse lens and cultured lens cells demonstrate that Pax6-bound regions are mostly enriched with H3K4me2 and H3K4me1 in enhancers and promoters, though H3K4me3 marks only Pax6-containing promoters. The shRNA-mediated knockdown of Pax6 revealed down-regulation of a set of direct target genes, including Cap2, Farp1, Pax6, Plekha1, Prox1, Tshz2, and Zfp536. Pax6 knockdown was accompanied by reduced H3K4me1 at enhancers and H3K4me3 at promoters, with little or no changes of the H3K4me2 modifications. These changes were prominent in Plekha1, a gene regulated by Pax6 in both lens and retinal pigmented epithelium. Our study supports a general model of Pax6-mediated recruitment of histone methyltransferases Mll1 and Mll2 to lens chromatin, especially at distal enhancers. Genome-wide data in lens show that Pax6 binding correlates with H3K4me2, consistent with the idea that H3K4me2 PTMs correlate with the binding of transcription factors. Importantly, partial reduction of Pax6 induces prominent changes in local H3K4me1 and H3K4me3 modification. Together, these data open the field to mechanistic studies of Pax6, Mll1, Mll2, and H3K4me1/2/3 dynamics at distal enhancers and promoters of developmentally controlled genes.

Twitter Demographics

The data shown below were collected from the profiles of 11 tweeters who shared this research output. Click here to find out more about how the information was compiled.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 39 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Unknown 39 100%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Ph. D. Student 13 33%
Researcher 6 15%
Student > Bachelor 5 13%
Student > Master 4 10%
Student > Doctoral Student 4 10%
Other 4 10%
Unknown 3 8%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 16 41%
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 13 33%
Medicine and Dentistry 3 8%
Neuroscience 2 5%
Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science 1 3%
Other 0 0%
Unknown 4 10%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 6. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 19 September 2016.
All research outputs
#3,914,488
of 16,639,069 outputs
Outputs from Epigenetics & Chromatin
#170
of 478 outputs
Outputs of similar age
#67,708
of 268,137 outputs
Outputs of similar age from Epigenetics & Chromatin
#1
of 1 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 16,639,069 research outputs across all sources so far. Compared to these this one has done well and is in the 76th percentile: it's in the top 25% of all research outputs ever tracked by Altmetric.
So far Altmetric has tracked 478 research outputs from this source. They typically receive a little more attention than average, with a mean Attention Score of 6.5. This one has gotten more attention than average, scoring higher than 64% of its peers.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 268,137 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one has gotten more attention than average, scoring higher than 74% of its contemporaries.
We're also able to compare this research output to 1 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one has scored higher than all of them