The secretory phospholipase A2 II A (sPLA2-IIA) encoded by PLA2G2A gene hydrolyzes phospholipids liberating free fatty acids (FFAs) and lysophospholipids. If lipolysis exceeds lipogenesis, the free fatty acids undergo a continuous release into circulation. A sustained excessive increase in this release contributes to metabolic disease. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the role of PLA2G2A gene polymorphisms as susceptibility markers for metabolic syndrome (MetS) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in Mexican population. Three PLA2G2A gene polymorphisms (rs876018, rs3753827 and rs11573156) were genotyped by 5' exonuclease TaqMan assays in a group of 338 patients with T2DM, 460 individuals with MetS and 366 healthy controls. Under codominant 1(codom1), dominant (dom) and additive (add) models adjusted by age, gender, body mass index (BMI), smoking habit, and hypertension, the rs876018T allele was associated with increased risk of MetS [Odds Ratio (OR)=1.66, Pcodom1=0.005; OR=1.67, Pdom=0.003; OR=1.49, Padd=0.005] as compared to controls. On the other hand, under several models adjusted by the same variables, the rs3753827A (OR=1.52, Pcodom1=0.039 and OR=1.49, Pdom=0.039) and rs11573156C alleles (OR=6.46, Pcodom1=0.013; OR=6.70, Pcodom2=0.009; OR=6.65, Pdom=0.009) were associated with increased risk of T2DM when compared with controls. In addition, the rs876018T allele was associated with hypercholesterolemia (Pdom=0.017, Padd=0.009) and risk of subclinical atherosclerosis (SA) (Pdom=0.041) in MetS when compared with controls. Also, this allele was associated with SA in T2DM patients (Pdom=0.007). The TAG haplotype was significantly associated with increased risk of MetS (OR=1.54, P=0.006). Results suggest that PLA2G2A polymorphisms are involved in the risk of developing MetS and T2D and are associated with SA in this group of patients.