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Spatio-temporal heterogeneity of malaria vectors in northern Zambia: implications for vector control

Overview of attention for article published in Parasites & Vectors, September 2016
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Title
Spatio-temporal heterogeneity of malaria vectors in northern Zambia: implications for vector control
Published in
Parasites & Vectors, September 2016
DOI 10.1186/s13071-016-1786-9
Pubmed ID
Authors

Jennifer C. Stevenson, Jessie Pinchoff, Mbanga Muleba, James Lupiya, Hunter Chilusu, Ian Mwelwa, David Mbewe, Limonty Simubali, Christine M. Jones, Mike Chaponda, Maureen Coetzee, Modest Mulenga, Julia C. Pringle, Tim Shields, Frank C. Curriero, Douglas E. Norris

Abstract

Despite large reductions in malaria burden across Zambia, some regions continue to experience extremely high malaria transmission. In Nchelenge District, Luapula Province, northern Zambia, almost half the human population carries parasites. Intervention coverage has increased substantially over the past decade, but comprehensive district-wide entomological studies to guide delivery of vector control measures are lacking. This study describes the bionomics and spatio-temporal patterns of malaria vectors in Nchelenge over a two and a half year period, investigates what household factors are associated with high vector densities and determines why vector control may not have been effective in the past to better guide future control efforts. Between April 2012 and September 2014, twenty-seven households from across Nchelenge District were randomly selected for monthly light trap collections of mosquitoes. Anopheline mosquitoes were identified morphologically and molecularly to species. Foraging rates were estimated and sporozoite rates were determined by circumsporozoite ELISAs to calculate annual entomological inoculation rates. Blood feeding rates and host preference were determined by PCR. Zero-inflated negative binomial models measured environmental and household factors associated with mosquito abundance at study households such as season, proximity to the lake, and use of vector control measures. The dominant species in Nchelenge was An. funestus (s.s.) with An. gambiae (s.s.) as a secondary vector. Both vectors were found together in large numbers across the district and the combined EIRs of the two vectors exceeded 80 infectious bites per person per annum. An. funestus household densities increased in the dry season whilst An. gambiae surged during the rains. Presence of insecticide treated nets (ITNs) and closed eaves in the houses were found to be associated with fewer numbers of An. gambiae but not An. funestus. There was no association with indoor residual spraying (IRS). In Nchelenge, the co-existence of two highly anthropophagic vectors, present throughout the year, is likely to be driving the high malaria transmission evident in the district. The vectors here have been shown to be highly resistant to pyrethroids used for IRS during the study. Vector control interventions in this area would have to be multifaceted and district-wide for effective control of malaria.

Twitter Demographics

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Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 57 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
United States 1 2%
Unknown 56 98%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Ph. D. Student 14 25%
Student > Master 9 16%
Researcher 9 16%
Student > Bachelor 7 12%
Other 4 7%
Other 8 14%
Unknown 6 11%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 17 30%
Medicine and Dentistry 9 16%
Nursing and Health Professions 5 9%
Environmental Science 4 7%
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 4 7%
Other 8 14%
Unknown 10 18%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 1. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 24 September 2016.
All research outputs
#6,393,344
of 8,425,604 outputs
Outputs from Parasites & Vectors
#1,657
of 2,338 outputs
Outputs of similar age
#178,293
of 253,877 outputs
Outputs of similar age from Parasites & Vectors
#67
of 92 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 8,425,604 research outputs across all sources so far. This one is in the 13th percentile – i.e., 13% of other outputs scored the same or lower than it.
So far Altmetric has tracked 2,338 research outputs from this source. They receive a mean Attention Score of 3.8. This one is in the 15th percentile – i.e., 15% of its peers scored the same or lower than it.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 253,877 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one is in the 17th percentile – i.e., 17% of its contemporaries scored the same or lower than it.
We're also able to compare this research output to 92 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one is in the 8th percentile – i.e., 8% of its contemporaries scored the same or lower than it.