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Association of Hormonal Contraception With Depression

Overview of attention for article published in JAMA Psychiatry, November 2016
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About this Attention Score

  • In the top 5% of all research outputs scored by Altmetric
  • One of the highest-scoring outputs from this source (#1 of 1,692)
  • High Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age (99th percentile)
  • High Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age and source (98th percentile)

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Title
Association of Hormonal Contraception With Depression
Published in
JAMA Psychiatry, November 2016
DOI 10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2016.2387
Pubmed ID
Authors

Charlotte Wessel Skovlund, Lina Steinrud Mørch, Lars Vedel Kessing, Øjvind Lidegaard

Abstract

Millions of women worldwide use hormonal contraception. Despite the clinical evidence of an influence of hormonal contraception on some women's mood, associations between the use of hormonal contraception and mood disturbances remain inadequately addressed. To investigate whether the use of hormonal contraception is positively associated with subsequent use of antidepressants and a diagnosis of depression at a psychiatric hospital. This nationwide prospective cohort study combined data from the National Prescription Register and the Psychiatric Central Research Register in Denmark. All women and adolescents aged 15 to 34 years who were living in Denmark were followed up from January 1, 2000, to December 2013, if they had no prior depression diagnosis, redeemed prescription for antidepressants, other major psychiatric diagnosis, cancer, venous thrombosis, or infertility treatment. Data were collected from January 1, 1995, to December 31, 2013, and analyzed from January 1, 2015, through April 1, 2016. Use of different types of hormonal contraception. With time-varying covariates, adjusted incidence rate ratios (RRs) were calculated for first use of an antidepressant and first diagnosis of depression at a psychiatric hospital. A total of 1 061 997 women (mean [SD] age, 24.4 [0.001] years; mean [SD] follow-up, 6.4 [0.004] years) were included in the analysis. Compared with nonusers, users of combined oral contraceptives had an RR of first use of an antidepressant of 1.23 (95% CI, 1.22-1.25). Users of progestogen-only pills had an RR for first use of an antidepressant of 1.34 (95% CI, 1.27-1.40); users of a patch (norgestrolmin), 2.0 (95% CI, 1.76-2.18); users of a vaginal ring (etonogestrel), 1.6 (95% CI, 1.55-1.69); and users of a levonorgestrel intrauterine system, 1.4 (95% CI, 1.31-1.42). For depression diagnoses, similar or slightly lower estimates were found. The relative risks generally decreased with increasing age. Adolescents (age range, 15-19 years) using combined oral contraceptives had an RR of a first use of an antidepressant of 1.8 (95% CI, 1.75-1.84) and those using progestin-only pills, 2.2 (95% CI, 1.99-2.52). Six months after starting use of hormonal contraceptives, the RR of antidepressant use peaked at 1.4 (95% CI, 1.34-1.46). When the reference group was changed to those who never used hormonal contraception, the RR estimates for users of combined oral contraceptives increased to 1.7 (95% CI, 1.66-1.71). Use of hormonal contraception, especially among adolescents, was associated with subsequent use of antidepressants and a first diagnosis of depression, suggesting depression as a potential adverse effect of hormonal contraceptive use.

Twitter Demographics

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Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 456 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Belgium 2 <1%
Switzerland 1 <1%
Portugal 1 <1%
United Kingdom 1 <1%
Germany 1 <1%
Canada 1 <1%
Unknown 449 98%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Bachelor 114 25%
Student > Master 62 14%
Unspecified 51 11%
Student > Ph. D. Student 51 11%
Researcher 43 9%
Other 135 30%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Medicine and Dentistry 136 30%
Psychology 70 15%
Unspecified 70 15%
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 37 8%
Nursing and Health Professions 36 8%
Other 107 23%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 2721. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 19 June 2019.
All research outputs
#321
of 13,105,634 outputs
Outputs from JAMA Psychiatry
#1
of 1,692 outputs
Outputs of similar age
#9
of 265,420 outputs
Outputs of similar age from JAMA Psychiatry
#1
of 62 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 13,105,634 research outputs across all sources so far. Compared to these this one has done particularly well and is in the 99th percentile: it's in the top 5% of all research outputs ever tracked by Altmetric.
So far Altmetric has tracked 1,692 research outputs from this source. They typically receive a lot more attention than average, with a mean Attention Score of 91.4. This one has done particularly well, scoring higher than 99% of its peers.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 265,420 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one has done particularly well, scoring higher than 99% of its contemporaries.
We're also able to compare this research output to 62 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one has done particularly well, scoring higher than 98% of its contemporaries.