The effects of taurine and thiotaurine on oxidative stress in the aorta and heart of diabetic rats.
Advances in experimental medicine and biology, January 2013
Elizabeth Mathew, Michael A. Barletta, Cesar A. Lau-Cam
Abdeslem El Idrissi, William J. L'Amoreaux
This study has compared the actions of the sulfur-containing compounds taurine (TAU) and thiotaurine (TTAU) with those of insulin (INS) on the oxidative stress that develops in the aorta and heart as a result of diabetes. Diabetes was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats with streptozotocin (60 mg/kg, i.p.). Starting on day 15, and continuing for the next 41 days, the diabetic rats received each day 2 mL of physiological saline or 2.4 mmol/kg/2 mL of TAU (or TTAU) p.o. or 4 U/kg of isophane INS s.c. Normal rats served as controls. The rats were sacrificed on day 57 to collect blood, heart and thoracic aorta samples. Untreated diabetic rats exhibited a lower body weight gain (by 34%), higher than normal plasma glucose (by ∼4-fold), cholesterol (by 66%) and triglycerides (by 188%) levels, and lower INS levels (by 76%). Also there was a marked increase in catalase activity (≥90%); and clear decreases in nitrite (≥40%), glutathione redox status (≥67%), and glutathione peroxidase (≥66%) and superoxide dismutase (≥51%) activities in both the aorta and heart. With only a few isolated instances (plasma lipids), TTAU was either markedly more effective (plasma glucose, plasma INS, aorta and heart glutathione, aorta redox status, and antioxidant enzymes) or marginally more effective (heart redox status) than TAU in attenuating the alterations brought about by diabetes. These results suggest that replacing the sulfonic acid group of TAU by thiosulfonic acid can lead to a greater potency against diabetes-related biochemical changes in the plasma, heart and aorta. However, except for effects on plasma lipids, these sulfur-containing compounds were less effective than INS in counteracting diabetes-related changes.
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