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Bifeprunox versus placebo for schizophrenia

Overview of attention for article published in Cochrane database of systematic reviews, October 2016
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Title
Bifeprunox versus placebo for schizophrenia
Published in
Cochrane database of systematic reviews, October 2016
DOI 10.1002/14651858.cd012029.pub2
Pubmed ID
Authors

Arka Chattopadhyay, Stephen Frey, Ghiselle Green

Abstract

Bifeprunox is a novel antipsychotic drug designed to treat schizophrenia. However, research into the drug was ceased in 2009 due to rejection of licence to go to market by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), who could not approve the drug for acute or long-term symptoms of schizophrenia because more research was required to demonstrate convincing effects "beyond those already achieved" with currently licenced drugs. There were also concerns expressed over one death of a person whilst on the drug. To investigate the clinical and adverse effects of bifeprunox for people with schizophrenia. We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group's Trials Register on 23 October 2015, which is based on regular searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, BIOSIS, AMED, PubMed, PsycINFO, and clinical trials registries. There are no language, date, document type, or publication status limitations for inclusion of records in the register. All randomised clinical trials focusing on bifeprunox versus placebo for schizophrenia. We extracted data independently. For binary outcomes, we calculated risk ratio (RR) and its 95% confidence interval (CI), on an intention-to-treat basis. For continuous data, we estimated the mean difference (MD) between groups and its 95% CI. We employed a random-effects model for analyses. We assessed risk of bias for included studies and created 'Summary of findings' tables using GRADE. We included four randomised controlled trials (RCTs). We found evidence of missing data and poor reporting. When bifeprunox 20 mg was compared with placebo for schizophrenia, the drug resulted in a reduction of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) positive subscale score regarding positive symptoms (n = 549, 2 RCTs, MD -1.89, 95% CI -2.85 to -0.92, low-quality evidence) and the PANSS negative subscale regarding negative symptoms (n = 549, 2 RCTs, MD -1.53, 95% CI -2.37 to -0.69, low-quality evidence). There was a clear improvement regarding deterioration in the bifeprunox 20 mg group (n = 231, 1 RCT, RR 0.71 95% CI, 0.54 to 0.93, very low-quality evidence). The total number of participants with equal to or greater than 7% weight increase was similar between bifeprunox and placebo (n = 483, 1 RCT, RR 1.02 95% CI 0.31 to 3.33 moderate-quality evidence). There were no useable data for quality of life, economic outcomes, and service use. Our results showed some positive effects and a favourable adverse effect profile for bifeprunox, although there were few data overall and none were of high quality. It would seem that these data alone would not have been enough for the FDA to decide to halt progress of the drug to market. We can only assume that we are missing important data. Both the FDA and the relevant pharmaceutical companies have not made all relevant data accessible. As some of these trials also involved an additional haloperidol, olanzapine, quetiapine, or risperidone arm, these data are not only relevant to evaluation of bifeprunox. In not making all data accessible, it is hard to see how the FDA and the drug companies have fulfilled their full obligations to people with schizophrenia or their clinicians.

Twitter Demographics

The data shown below were collected from the profiles of 2 tweeters who shared this research output. Click here to find out more about how the information was compiled.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 57 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Unknown 57 100%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Master 18 32%
Unspecified 13 23%
Student > Bachelor 8 14%
Student > Ph. D. Student 4 7%
Other 4 7%
Other 10 18%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Unspecified 16 28%
Medicine and Dentistry 14 25%
Nursing and Health Professions 8 14%
Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science 5 9%
Psychology 4 7%
Other 10 18%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 2. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 06 January 2017.
All research outputs
#7,554,602
of 12,527,219 outputs
Outputs from Cochrane database of systematic reviews
#8,042
of 8,923 outputs
Outputs of similar age
#135,657
of 265,542 outputs
Outputs of similar age from Cochrane database of systematic reviews
#146
of 176 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 12,527,219 research outputs across all sources so far. This one is in the 37th percentile – i.e., 37% of other outputs scored the same or lower than it.
So far Altmetric has tracked 8,923 research outputs from this source. They typically receive a lot more attention than average, with a mean Attention Score of 21.2. This one is in the 17th percentile – i.e., 17% of its peers scored the same or lower than it.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 265,542 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one is in the 45th percentile – i.e., 45% of its contemporaries scored the same or lower than it.
We're also able to compare this research output to 176 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one is in the 14th percentile – i.e., 14% of its contemporaries scored the same or lower than it.