The rising prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has increased the need for evidence-based treatments to lessen the impact of symptoms. Presently, no therapies are available to effectively treat individuals with all of the symptoms of this disorder. It has been suggested that hyperbaric oxygen therapy may alleviate the biochemical dysfunction and clinical symptoms of ASD.
To determine whether treatment with hyperbaric oxygen:1. improves core symptoms of ASD, including social communication problems and stereotypical and repetitive behaviors;2. improves noncore symptoms of ASD, such as challenging behaviors;3. improves comorbid states, such as depression and anxiety; and4. causes adverse effects.
On 10 December 2015, we searched CENTRAL, Ovid MEDLINE, Embase, and 15 other databases, four of which were Chinese language databases. We also searched multiple trial and research registers.
We selected randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs of any dose, duration, and frequency for hyperbaric oxygen therapy compared with no treatment or sham treatment for children and adults with ASD.
We used standard methodological procedures expected by The Cochrane Collaboration, in that three review authors independently selected studies, assessed them for risk of bias, and extracted relevant data. We also assessed the quality of the evidence by using the GRADE approach.
We included one trial with a total of 60 children with a diagnosis of ASD who randomly received hyperbaric oxygen therapy or a sham treatment. Using GRADE criteria, we rated the quality of the evidence as low because of the small sample size and wide confidence intervals (CIs). Other problems included selection bias and short duration or follow-up.Overall, study authors reported no improvement in social interaction and communication, behavioral problems, communication and linguistic abilities, or cognitive function. With regard to the safety of hyperbaric oxygen therapy (adverse events), they reported minor-grade ear barotrauma events. Investigators found significant differences between groups in total number of side effect events (Peto odds ratio (OR) 3.87, 95% CI 1.53 to 9.82) and in the number of children who experienced side effects (Peto OR 4.40, 95% CI 1.33 to 14.48).
To date, there is no evidence that hyperbaric oxygen therapy improves core symptoms and associated symptoms of ASD. It is important to note that adverse effects (minor-grade ear barotrauma events) can occur. Given the absence of evidence of effectiveness and the limited biological plausibility and possible adverse effects, the need for future RCTs of hyperbaric oxygen therapy must be carefully considered.