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Alternative pre-approved and novel therapies for the treatment of anthrax

Overview of attention for article published in BMC Infectious Diseases, November 2016
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2 tweeters

Citations

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9 Dimensions

Readers on

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30 Mendeley
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Title
Alternative pre-approved and novel therapies for the treatment of anthrax
Published in
BMC Infectious Diseases, November 2016
DOI 10.1186/s12879-016-1951-y
Pubmed ID
Authors

Breanne M. Head, Ethan Rubinstein, Adrienne F. A. Meyers

Abstract

Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax, is a spore forming and toxin producing rod-shaped bacterium that is classified as a category A bioterror agent. This pathogenic microbe can be transmitted to both animals and humans. Clinical presentation depends on the route of entry (direct contact, ingestion, injection or aerosolization) with symptoms ranging from isolated skin infections to more severe manifestations such as cardiac or pulmonary shock, meningitis, and death. To date, anthrax is treatable if antibiotics are administered promptly and continued for 60 days. However, if treatment is delayed or administered improperly, the patient's chances of survival are decreased drastically. In addition, antibiotics are ineffective against the harmful anthrax toxins and spores. Therefore, alternative therapeutics are essential. In this review article, we explore and discuss advances that have been made in anthrax therapy with a primary focus on alternative pre-approved and novel antibiotics as well as anti-toxin therapies. A literature search was conducted using the University of Manitoba search engine. Using this search engine allowed access to a greater variety of journals/articles that would have otherwise been restricted for general use. In order to be considered for discussion for this review, all articles must have been published later than 2009. The alternative pre-approved antibiotics demonstrated high efficacy against B. anthracis both in vitro and in vivo. In addition, the safety profile and clinical pharmacology of these drugs were already known. Compounds that targeted underexploited bacterial processes (DNA replication, RNA synthesis, and cell division) were also very effective in combatting B. anthracis. In addition, these novel compounds prevented bacterial resistance. Targeting B. anthracis virulence, more specifically the anthrax toxins, increased the length of which treatment could be administered. Several novel and pre-existing antibiotics, as well as toxin inhibitors, have shown increasing promise. A combination treatment that targets both bacterial growth and toxin production would be ideal and probably necessary for effectively combatting this armed bacterium.

Twitter Demographics

The data shown below were collected from the profiles of 2 tweeters who shared this research output. Click here to find out more about how the information was compiled.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 30 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Unknown 30 100%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Bachelor 6 20%
Unspecified 5 17%
Student > Master 4 13%
Student > Doctoral Student 4 13%
Student > Ph. D. Student 3 10%
Other 8 27%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Unspecified 5 17%
Immunology and Microbiology 5 17%
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 4 13%
Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science 4 13%
Medicine and Dentistry 3 10%
Other 9 30%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 1. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 07 June 2017.
All research outputs
#8,724,545
of 11,332,694 outputs
Outputs from BMC Infectious Diseases
#2,728
of 4,209 outputs
Outputs of similar age
#163,541
of 253,032 outputs
Outputs of similar age from BMC Infectious Diseases
#130
of 234 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 11,332,694 research outputs across all sources so far. This one is in the 19th percentile – i.e., 19% of other outputs scored the same or lower than it.
So far Altmetric has tracked 4,209 research outputs from this source. They receive a mean Attention Score of 4.2. This one is in the 27th percentile – i.e., 27% of its peers scored the same or lower than it.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 253,032 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one is in the 30th percentile – i.e., 30% of its contemporaries scored the same or lower than it.
We're also able to compare this research output to 234 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one is in the 39th percentile – i.e., 39% of its contemporaries scored the same or lower than it.