Circulating Blood-Borne microRNAs as Biomarkers in Solid Tumors.
Circulating microRNAs in Disease Diagnostics and their Potential Biological Relevance
EXS, January 2015
Vychytilova-Faltejskova, Petra, Slaby, Ondrej, Petra Vychytilova-Faltejskova, Ondrej Slaby
One of the major challenges in cancer research is the identification of stable biomarkers that could be routinely measured in easily accessible samples. Human blood and other body fluids represent rich sources for the identification of novel biomarkers. It is apparent that the availability of these biomarkers would improve an early detection of asymptomatic disease and the clinical management of cancer. MicroRNAs have been described to be present in various types of body fluids including cell-free serum and plasma. These days, the involvement of microRNAs in molecular pathology of cancer is well established. Moreover, it seems that these molecules could be optimal noninvasive biomarkers owing to their high stability under storage and handling conditions and high sensitivity and specificity in various diseases. To date, more than 100 circulating microRNAs with the potential to serve as novel diagnostic, prognostic, or predictive biomarkers for different types of cancers have been identified, and this number is still increasing. However, there are major discrepancies in the findings by different research groups, and few commonly altered microRNAs have been reported in these studies. Further studies on large cohorts using uniform methodology are warranted to establish the clinical applicability of circulating microRNAs for solid tumors. Here, we summarize the tumor-specific profiles of blood-borne microRNAs and discuss their potential utility for personalized medicine of solid tumors.
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