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Characterization and Evolution of the Spotted Gar Retina

Overview of attention for article published in Journal of Experimental Zoology Part B: Molecular and Developmental Evolution, November 2016
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About this Attention Score

  • In the top 25% of all research outputs scored by Altmetric
  • Good Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age (71st percentile)
  • Above-average Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age and source (58th percentile)

Mentioned by

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7 tweeters

Citations

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8 Dimensions

Readers on

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32 Mendeley
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Title
Characterization and Evolution of the Spotted Gar Retina
Published in
Journal of Experimental Zoology Part B: Molecular and Developmental Evolution, November 2016
DOI 10.1002/jez.b.22710
Pubmed ID
Authors

Joshua M. Sukeena, Carlos A. Galicia, Jacob D. Wilson, Tim McGinn, Janette W. Boughman, Barrie D. Robison, John H. Postlethwait, Ingo Braasch, Deborah L. Stenkamp, Peter G. Fuerst

Abstract

In this study, we characterize the retina of the spotted gar, Lepisosteus oculatus, a ray-finned fish. Gar did not undergo the whole genome duplication event that occurred at the base of the teleost fish lineage, which includes the model species zebrafish and medaka. The divergence of gars from the teleost lineage and the availability of a high-quality genome sequence make it a uniquely useful species to understand how genome duplication sculpted features of the teleost visual system, including photoreceptor diversity. We developed reagents to characterize the cellular organization of the spotted gar retina, including representative markers for all major classes of retinal neurons and Müller glia. We report that the gar has a preponderance of predicted short-wavelength shifted (SWS) opsin genes, including a duplicated set of SWS1 (ultraviolet) sensitive opsin encoding genes, a SWS2 (blue) opsin encoding gene, and two rod opsin encoding genes, all of which were expressed in retinal photoreceptors. We also report that gar SWS1 cones lack the geometric organization of photoreceptors observed in teleost fish species, consistent with the crystalline photoreceptor mosaic being a teleost innovation. Of note the spotted gar expresses both exo-rhodopsin (RH1-1) and rhodopsin (RH1-2) in rods. Exo-rhodopsin is an opsin that is not expressed in the retina of zebrafish and other teleosts, but rather is expressed in regions of the brain. This study suggests that exo-rhodopsin is an ancestral actinopterygian (ray finned fish) retinal opsin, and in teleosts its expression has possibly been subfunctionalized to the pineal gland.

Twitter Demographics

The data shown below were collected from the profiles of 7 tweeters who shared this research output. Click here to find out more about how the information was compiled.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 32 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Germany 1 3%
Unknown 31 97%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Researcher 5 16%
Student > Ph. D. Student 4 13%
Other 3 9%
Professor > Associate Professor 3 9%
Student > Bachelor 3 9%
Other 9 28%
Unknown 5 16%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 11 34%
Neuroscience 5 16%
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 3 9%
Medicine and Dentistry 3 9%
Unspecified 1 3%
Other 2 6%
Unknown 7 22%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 5. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 31 August 2017.
All research outputs
#3,014,401
of 12,522,668 outputs
Outputs from Journal of Experimental Zoology Part B: Molecular and Developmental Evolution
#92
of 315 outputs
Outputs of similar age
#80,364
of 279,202 outputs
Outputs of similar age from Journal of Experimental Zoology Part B: Molecular and Developmental Evolution
#5
of 12 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 12,522,668 research outputs across all sources so far. Compared to these this one has done well and is in the 75th percentile: it's in the top 25% of all research outputs ever tracked by Altmetric.
So far Altmetric has tracked 315 research outputs from this source. They typically receive more attention than average, with a mean Attention Score of 8.9. This one has gotten more attention than average, scoring higher than 71% of its peers.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 279,202 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one has gotten more attention than average, scoring higher than 71% of its contemporaries.
We're also able to compare this research output to 12 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one has gotten more attention than average, scoring higher than 58% of its contemporaries.