Hypoparathyroidism and pseudohypoparathyroidism: etiology, laboratory features and complications
Archives of Endocrinology and Metabolism, November 2016
Lopes, Maicon Piana, Kliemann, Breno S., Bini, Ileana Borsato, Kulchetscki, Rodrigo, Borsani, Victor, Savi, Larissa, Borba, Victoria Z. C., Moreira, Carolina A., Lopes, Maicon Piana, Kliemann, Breno S., Bini, Ileana Borsato, Kulchetscki, Rodrigo, Borsani, Victor, Savi, Larissa, Borba, Victoria Z. C., Moreira, Carolina A.
To identify a clinical profile and laboratory findings of a cohort of hypoparathyroidism patients and determine the prevalence and predictors for renal abnormalities. Data from medical records of five different visits were obtained, focusing on therapeutic doses of calcium and vitamin D, on laboratory tests and renal ultrasonography (USG). Fifty-five patients were identified, 42 females and 13 males; mean age of 44.5 and average time of the disease of 11.2 years. The most frequent etiology was post-surgical. Levels of serum calcium and creatinine increased between the first and last visits (p < 0.001 and p < 0.05, respectively); and serum levels of phosphate decreased during the same period (p < 0.001). Out of the 55 patients, 40 had USG, and 10 (25%) presented with kidney calcifications. There was no significant difference in the amount of calcium and vitamin D doses among patients with kidney calcifications and others. No correlation between serum and urinary levels of calcium and the presence of calcification was found. Urinary calcium excretion in 24h was significantly higher in patients with kidney calcification (3.3 mg/kg/d) than in those without calcification (1.8 mg/kg/d) (p < 0.05). The reduction of hypocalcemia and hyperphosphatemia suggest an effectiveness of the treatment, and the increase in serum creatinine demonstrates an impairment of renal function during follow-up. Kidney calcifications were prevalent in this cohort, and higher urinary calcium excretion, even if still within the normal range, was associated with development of calcification. These findings suggest that lower rates of urinary calcium excretion should be aimed for in the management of hypoparathyroidism.
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