In the last decades the prevalence of obesity has increased dramatically, and the worldwide epidemic of obesity and related metabolic diseases has contributed to an increased interest for the adipose tissue (AT), the primary site for storage of lipids, as a metabolically dynamic and endocrine organ. Subcutaneous AT is the depot with the largest capacity to store excess energy and when its limit for storage is reached hypertrophic obesity, local inflammation, insulin resistance and ultimately type 2 diabetes (T2D) will develop. Hypertrophic AT is also associated with a dysfunctional adipogenesis, depending on the inability to recruit and differentiate new mature adipose cells. Lately, cellular senescence (CS), an aging mechanism defined as an irreversible growth arrest that occurs in response to various cellular stressors, such as telomere shortening, DNA damage and oxidative stress, has gained a lot of attention as a regulator of metabolic tissues and aging-associated conditions. The abundance of senescent cells increases not only with aging but also in hypertrophic obesity independent of age. Senescent AT is characterized by dysfunctional cells, increased inflammation, decreased insulin sensitivity and lipid storage. AT resident cells, such as progenitor cells (APC), non-proliferating mature cells and microvascular endothelial cells are affected with an increased senescence burden. Dysfunctional APC have both an impaired adipogenic and proliferative capacity. Interestingly, human mature adipose cells from obese hyperinsulinemic individuals have been shown to re-enter the cell cycle and senesce, which indicates an increased endoreplication. CS was also found to be more pronounced in mature cells from T2D individuals, compared to matched non-diabetic individuals, with decreased insulin sensitivity and adipogenic capacity. Factors associated with cellular senescence in human adipose tissue.