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Oral anti-diabetic pharmacological therapies for the treatment of women with gestational diabetes

Overview of attention for article published in Cochrane database of systematic reviews, January 2017
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  • In the top 25% of all research outputs scored by Altmetric
  • High Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age (91st percentile)
  • Good Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age and source (73rd percentile)

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Title
Oral anti-diabetic pharmacological therapies for the treatment of women with gestational diabetes
Published in
Cochrane database of systematic reviews, January 2017
DOI 10.1002/14651858.cd011967.pub2
Pubmed ID
Authors

Julie Brown, Ruth Martis, Brenda Hughes, Janet Rowan, Caroline A Crowther

Abstract

Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a major public health issue with rates increasing globally. Gestational diabetes, glucose intolerance first recognised during pregnancy, usually resolves after birth and is associated with short- and long-term complications for the mother and her infant. Treatment options can include oral anti-diabetic pharmacological therapies. To evaluate the effects of oral anti-diabetic pharmacological therapies for treating women with GDM. We searched Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth's Trials Register (14 May 2016), ClinicalTrials.gov, WHO ICTRP (14 May 2016) and reference lists of retrieved studies. We included published and unpublished randomised controlled trials assessing the effects of oral anti-diabetic pharmacological therapies for treating pregnant women with GDM. We included studies comparing oral anti-diabetic pharmacological therapies with 1) placebo/standard care, 2) another oral anti-diabetic pharmacological therapy, 3) combined oral anti-diabetic pharmacological therapies. Trials using insulin as the comparator were excluded as they are the subject of a separate Cochrane systematic review.Women with pre-existing type 1 or type 2 diabetes were excluded. Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion and trial quality. Two review authors independently extracted data and data were checked for accuracy. We included 11 studies (19 publications) (1487 women and their babies). Eight studies had data that could be included in meta-analyses. Studies were conducted in Brazil, India, Israel, UK, South Africa and USA. The studies varied in diagnostic criteria and treatment targets for glycaemic control for GDM. The overall risk of bias was 'unclear' due to inadequate reporting of methodology. Using GRADE the quality of the evidence ranged from moderate to very low quality. Evidence was downgraded for risk of bias (reporting bias, lack of blinding), inconsistency, indirectness, imprecision and for oral anti-diabetic therapy versus placebo for generalisability. Oral anti-diabetic pharmacological therapies versus placebo/standard careThere was no evidence of a difference between glibenclamide and placebo groups for hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (risk ratio (RR) 1.24, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.81 to 1.90; one study, 375 women, very low-quality evidence), birth by caesarean section (RR 1.03, 95% CI 0.79 to 1.34; one study, 375 women, very low-quality evidence), perineal trauma (RR 0.98, 95% CI 0.06 to 15.62; one study, 375 women, very low-quality evidence) or induction of labour (RR 1.18, 95% CI 0.79 to 1.76; one study, 375 women; very low-quality evidence). No data were reported for development of type 2 diabetes or other pre-specified GRADE maternal outcomes (return to pre-pregnancy weight, postnatal depression). For the infant, there was no evidence of a difference in the risk of being born large-for-gestational age (LGA) between infants whose mothers had been treated with glibenclamide and those in the placebo group (RR 0.89, 95% CI 0.51 to 1.58; one study, 375, low-quality evidence). No data were reported for other infant primary or GRADE outcomes (perinatal mortality, death or serious morbidity composite, neurosensory disability in later childhood, neonatal hypoglycaemia, adiposity, diabetes). Metformin versus glibenclamideThere was no evidence of a difference between metformin- and glibenclamide-treated groups for the risk of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (RR 0.70, 95% CI 0.38 to 1.30; three studies, 508 women, moderate-quality evidence), birth by caesarean section (average RR 1.20, 95% CI 1.20; 95% CI 0.83 to 1.72, four studies, 554 women, I(2) = 61%, Tau(2) = 0.07 low-quality evidence), induction of labour (0.81, 95% CI 0.61 to 1.07; one study, 159 women; low-quality evidence) or perineal trauma (RR 1.67, 95% CI 0.22 to 12.52; two studies, 158 women; low-quality evidence). No data were reported for development of type 2 diabetes or other pre-specified GRADE maternal outcomes (return to pre-pregnancy weight, postnatal depression). For the infant there was no evidence of a difference between the metformin- and glibenclamide-exposed groups for the risk of being born LGA (average RR 0.67, 95% CI 0.24 to 1.83; two studies, 246 infants, I(2) = 54%, Tau(2) = 0.30 low-quality evidence). Metformin was associated with a decrease in a death or serious morbidity composite (RR 0.54, 95% CI 0.31 to 0.94; one study, 159 infants, low-quality evidence). There was no clear difference between groups for neonatal hypoglycaemia (RR 0.86, 95% CI 0.42 to 1.77; four studies, 554 infants, low-quality evidence) or perinatal mortality (RR 0.92, 95% CI 0.06 to 14.55, two studies, 359 infants). No data were reported for neurosensory disability in later childhood or for adiposity or diabetes. Glibenclamide versus acarboseThere was no evidence of a difference between glibenclamide and acarbose from one study (43 women) for any of their maternal or infant primary outcomes (caesarean section, RR 0.95, 95% CI 0.53 to 1.70; low-quality evidence; perinatal mortality - no events; low-quality evidence; LGA , RR 2.38, 95% CI 0.54 to 10.46; low-quality evidence). There was no evidence of a difference between glibenclamide and acarbose for neonatal hypoglycaemia (RR 6.33, 95% CI 0.87 to 46.32; low-quality evidence). There were no data reported for other pre-specified GRADE or primary maternal outcomes (hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, development of type 2 diabetes, perineal trauma, return to pre-pregnancy weight, postnatal depression, induction of labour) or neonatal outcomes (death or serious morbidity composite, adiposity or diabetes). There were insufficient data comparing oral anti-diabetic pharmacological therapies with placebo/standard care (lifestyle advice) to inform clinical practice. There was insufficient high-quality evidence to be able to draw any meaningful conclusions as to the benefits of one oral anti-diabetic pharmacological therapy over another due to limited reporting of data for the primary and secondary outcomes in this review. Short- and long-term clinical outcomes for this review were inadequately reported or not reported. Current choice of oral anti-diabetic pharmacological therapy appears to be based on clinical preference, availability and national clinical practice guidelines.The benefits and potential harms of one oral anti-diabetic pharmacological therapy compared with another, or compared with placebo/standard care remains unclear and requires further research. Future trials should attempt to report on the core outcomes suggested in this review, in particular long-term outcomes for the woman and the infant that have been poorly reported to date, women's experiences and cost benefit.

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Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 315 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Ethiopia 1 <1%
United Kingdom 1 <1%
Norway 1 <1%
Unknown 312 99%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Unspecified 60 19%
Student > Master 57 18%
Student > Bachelor 47 15%
Student > Ph. D. Student 40 13%
Researcher 29 9%
Other 82 26%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Medicine and Dentistry 117 37%
Unspecified 79 25%
Nursing and Health Professions 41 13%
Psychology 20 6%
Social Sciences 12 4%
Other 46 15%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 23. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 23 April 2019.
All research outputs
#735,129
of 13,644,952 outputs
Outputs from Cochrane database of systematic reviews
#2,313
of 10,697 outputs
Outputs of similar age
#27,714
of 346,521 outputs
Outputs of similar age from Cochrane database of systematic reviews
#59
of 219 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 13,644,952 research outputs across all sources so far. Compared to these this one has done particularly well and is in the 94th percentile: it's in the top 10% of all research outputs ever tracked by Altmetric.
So far Altmetric has tracked 10,697 research outputs from this source. They typically receive a lot more attention than average, with a mean Attention Score of 21.2. This one has done well, scoring higher than 78% of its peers.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 346,521 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one has done particularly well, scoring higher than 91% of its contemporaries.
We're also able to compare this research output to 219 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one has gotten more attention than average, scoring higher than 73% of its contemporaries.