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TGF-β1-induced differentiation of SHED into functional smooth muscle cells

Overview of attention for article published in Stem Cell Research & Therapy, January 2017
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Title
TGF-β1-induced differentiation of SHED into functional smooth muscle cells
Published in
Stem Cell Research & Therapy, January 2017
DOI 10.1186/s13287-016-0459-0
Pubmed ID
Authors

Jian Guang Xu, Shao Yue Zhu, Boon Chin Heng, Waruna Lakmal Dissanayaka, Cheng Fei Zhang, Jian Guang Xu, Shao Yue Zhu, Boon Chin Heng, Waruna Lakmal Dissanayaka, Cheng Fei Zhang

Abstract

Adequate vascularization is crucial for supplying nutrition and discharging metabolic waste in freshly transplanted tissue-engineered constructs. Obtaining the appropriate building blocks for vascular tissue engineering (i.e. endothelial and mural cells) is a challenging task for tissue neovascularization. Hence, we investigated whether stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED) could be induced to differentiate into functional vascular smooth muscle cells (vSMCs). We utilized two cytokines of the TGF-β family, transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) and bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4), to induce SHED differentiation into SMCs. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) was used to assess mRNA expression, and protein expression was analyzed using flow cytometry, western blot and immunostaining. Additionally, to examine whether these SHED-derived SMCs possess the same function as primary SMCs, in vitro Matrigel angiogenesis assay, fibrin gel bead assay, and functional contraction study were used here. By analyzing the expression of specific markers of SMCs (α-SMA, SM22α, Calponin, and SM-MHC), we confirmed that TGF-β1, and not BMP4, could induce SHED differentiation into SMCs. The differentiation efficiency was relatively high (α-SMA(+) 86.1%, SM22α(+) 93.9%, Calponin(+) 56.8%, and SM-MHC(+) 88.2%) as assessed by flow cytometry. In vitro Matrigel angiogenesis assay showed that the vascular structures generated by SHED-derived SMCs and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were comparable to primary SMCs and HUVECs in terms of vessel stability. Fibrin gel bead assay showed that SHED-derived SMCs had a stronger capacity for promoting vessel formation compared with primary SMCs. Further analyses of protein expression in fibrin gel showed that cultures containing SHED-derived SMCs exhibited higher expression levels of Fibronectin than the primary SMCs group. Additionally, it was also confirmed that SHED-derived SMCs exhibited functional contractility. When SB-431542, a specific inhibitor of ALK5 was administered, TGF-β1 stimulation could not induce SHED into SMCs, indicating that the differentiation of SHED into SMCs is somehow related to the TGF-β1-ALK5 signaling pathway. SHED could be successfully induced into functional SMCs for vascular tissue engineering, and this course could be regulated through the ALK5 signaling pathway. Hence, SHED appear to be a promising candidate cell type for vascular tissue engineering.

Twitter Demographics

The data shown below were collected from the profile of 1 tweeter who shared this research output. Click here to find out more about how the information was compiled.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 22 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Unknown 22 100%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Postgraduate 3 14%
Researcher 3 14%
Student > Doctoral Student 3 14%
Student > Ph. D. Student 3 14%
Student > Bachelor 2 9%
Other 4 18%
Unknown 4 18%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Medicine and Dentistry 8 36%
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 4 18%
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 3 14%
Nursing and Health Professions 1 5%
Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science 1 5%
Other 1 5%
Unknown 4 18%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 1. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 04 February 2017.
All research outputs
#7,806,930
of 9,006,411 outputs
Outputs from Stem Cell Research & Therapy
#705
of 791 outputs
Outputs of similar age
#255,392
of 308,883 outputs
Outputs of similar age from Stem Cell Research & Therapy
#28
of 36 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 9,006,411 research outputs across all sources so far. This one is in the 1st percentile – i.e., 1% of other outputs scored the same or lower than it.
So far Altmetric has tracked 791 research outputs from this source. They receive a mean Attention Score of 5.0. This one is in the 1st percentile – i.e., 1% of its peers scored the same or lower than it.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 308,883 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one is in the 1st percentile – i.e., 1% of its contemporaries scored the same or lower than it.
We're also able to compare this research output to 36 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one is in the 1st percentile – i.e., 1% of its contemporaries scored the same or lower than it.