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Nuclear and structural dynamics during the establishment of a specialized effector-secreting cell by Magnaporthe oryzae in living rice cells

Overview of attention for article published in BMC Cell Biology, January 2017
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Title
Nuclear and structural dynamics during the establishment of a specialized effector-secreting cell by Magnaporthe oryzae in living rice cells
Published in
BMC Cell Biology, January 2017
DOI 10.1186/s12860-017-0126-z
Pubmed ID
Authors

Emma N. Shipman, Kiersun Jones, Cory B. Jenkinson, Dong Won Kim, Jie Zhu, Chang Hyun Khang

Abstract

To cause an economically important blast disease on rice, the filamentous fungus Magnaporthe oryzae forms a specialized infection structure, called an appressorium, to penetrate host cells. Once inside host cells, the fungus produces a filamentous primary hypha that differentiates into multicellular bulbous invasive hyphae (IH), which are surrounded by a host-derived membrane. These hyphae secrete cytoplasmic effectors that enter host cells presumably via the biotrophic interfacial complex (BIC). The first IH cell, also known as the side BIC-associated cell, is a specialized effector-secreting cell essential for a successful infection. This study aims to determine cellular processes that lead to the development of this effector-secreting first IH cell inside susceptible rice cells. Using live-cell confocal imaging, we determined a series of cellular events by which the appressorium gives rise to the first IH cell in live rice cells. The filamentous primary hypha extended from the appressorium and underwent asymmetric swelling at its apex. The single nucleus in the appressorium divided, and then one nucleus migrated into the swollen apex. Septation occurred in the filamentous region of the primary hypha, establishing the first IH cell. The tip BIC that was initially associated with the primary hypha became the side BIC on the swollen apex prior to nuclear division in the appressorium. The average distance between the early side BIC and the nearest nucleus in the appressorium was estimated to be more than 32 μm. These results suggest an unknown mechanism by which effectors that are expressed in the appressorium are transported through the primary hypha for their secretion into the distantly located BIC. When M. oryzae was inoculated on heat-killed rice cells, penetration proceeded as normal, but there was no differentiation of a bulbous IH cell, suggesting its specialization for establishment of biotrophic infection. Our studies reveal cellular dynamics associated with the development of the effector-secreting first IH cell. Our data raise new mechanistic questions concerning hyphal differentiation in response to host environmental cues and effector trafficking from the appressorium to the BIC.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 20 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Unknown 20 100%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Ph. D. Student 4 20%
Student > Bachelor 3 15%
Researcher 3 15%
Student > Master 3 15%
Student > Doctoral Student 1 5%
Other 2 10%
Unknown 4 20%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 14 70%
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 1 5%
Chemistry 1 5%
Unknown 4 20%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 1. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 11 February 2017.
All research outputs
#7,842,795
of 9,048,564 outputs
Outputs from BMC Cell Biology
#175
of 218 outputs
Outputs of similar age
#259,398
of 313,288 outputs
Outputs of similar age from BMC Cell Biology
#5
of 6 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 9,048,564 research outputs across all sources so far. This one is in the 1st percentile – i.e., 1% of other outputs scored the same or lower than it.
So far Altmetric has tracked 218 research outputs from this source. They typically receive a little more attention than average, with a mean Attention Score of 5.3. This one is in the 1st percentile – i.e., 1% of its peers scored the same or lower than it.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 313,288 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one is in the 1st percentile – i.e., 1% of its contemporaries scored the same or lower than it.
We're also able to compare this research output to 6 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one.