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Predictors of high out-of-pocket healthcare expenditure: an analysis using Bangladesh household income and expenditure survey, 2010

Overview of attention for article published in BMC Health Services Research, January 2017
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Title
Predictors of high out-of-pocket healthcare expenditure: an analysis using Bangladesh household income and expenditure survey, 2010
Published in
BMC Health Services Research, January 2017
DOI 10.1186/s12913-017-2047-0
Pubmed ID
Authors

Azaher Ali Molla, Chunhuei Chi, Alicia Lorena Núñez Mondaca

Abstract

Predictors of high out-of-pocket household healthcare expenditure are essential for creating effective health system finance policy. In Bangladesh, 63.3% of health expenditure is out-of-pocket and born by households. It is imperative to know what determines household health expenditure. This study aims to investigate the predicting factors of high out-of-pocket household healthcare expenditure targeting to put forward policy recommendations on equity in financial burden. Bangladesh household income and expenditure survey 2010 provides data for this study. Predictors of high out-of-pocket household healthcare expenditure were analyzed using multiple linear regressions. We have modeled non-linear relationship using logarithmic form of linear regression. Heteroscedasticity and multicollinearity were checked using Breusch-Pagan/Cook-Weishberg and VIF tests. Normality of the residuals was checked using Kernel density curve. We applied required adjustment for survey data, so that standard errors and parameters estimation are valid. Presence of chronic disease and household income were found to be the most influential and statistically significant (p < 0.001) predictors of high household healthcare expenditure. Households in rural areas spend 7% less than urban dwellers. The results show that a 100% increase in female members in a family leads to a 2% decrease in household health expenditure. Household income, health shocks in families, and family size are other statistically significant predictors of household healthcare expenditure. Proportion of elderly and under-five members in the family show some positive influence on health expenditure, though statistically nonsignificant. The findings call for emphasizing prevention of chronic diseases, as it is a strong predictor of household health expenditure. Innovative insurance scheme needs to be devised to prevent household from being impoverished due to health shocks in the family. Policy makers are urged to design an alternative source of healthcare financing in Bangladesh to minimize the burden of high OOP healthcare expenditure.

Twitter Demographics

The data shown below were collected from the profile of 1 tweeter who shared this research output. Click here to find out more about how the information was compiled.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 49 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Unknown 49 100%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Unspecified 9 18%
Student > Master 9 18%
Student > Postgraduate 8 16%
Student > Ph. D. Student 6 12%
Researcher 5 10%
Other 12 24%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Medicine and Dentistry 12 24%
Unspecified 10 20%
Nursing and Health Professions 6 12%
Social Sciences 5 10%
Economics, Econometrics and Finance 5 10%
Other 11 22%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 1. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 13 February 2017.
All research outputs
#4,920,549
of 9,059,795 outputs
Outputs from BMC Health Services Research
#2,296
of 3,348 outputs
Outputs of similar age
#178,495
of 315,214 outputs
Outputs of similar age from BMC Health Services Research
#86
of 127 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 9,059,795 research outputs across all sources so far. This one is in the 27th percentile – i.e., 27% of other outputs scored the same or lower than it.
So far Altmetric has tracked 3,348 research outputs from this source. They typically receive a little more attention than average, with a mean Attention Score of 5.7. This one is in the 20th percentile – i.e., 20% of its peers scored the same or lower than it.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 315,214 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one is in the 33rd percentile – i.e., 33% of its contemporaries scored the same or lower than it.
We're also able to compare this research output to 127 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one is in the 20th percentile – i.e., 20% of its contemporaries scored the same or lower than it.