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Combined target site (kdr) mutations play a primary role in highly pyrethroid resistant phenotypes of Aedes aegypti from Saudi Arabia

Overview of attention for article published in Parasites & Vectors, March 2017
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  • In the top 25% of all research outputs scored by Altmetric
  • Good Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age (78th percentile)

Mentioned by

1 policy source
8 tweeters


36 Dimensions

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95 Mendeley
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Combined target site (kdr) mutations play a primary role in highly pyrethroid resistant phenotypes of Aedes aegypti from Saudi Arabia
Published in
Parasites & Vectors, March 2017
DOI 10.1186/s13071-017-2096-6
Pubmed ID

Ashwaq M. Al Nazawi, Jabir Aqili, Mohammed Alzahrani, Philip J. McCall, David Weetman


Pyrethroid resistance is a threat to effective vector control of Aedes aegypti, the vector of dengue, Zika and other arboviruses, but there are many major knowledge gaps on the mechanisms of resistance. In Jeddah and Makkah, the principal dengue-endemic areas of Saudi Arabia, pyrethroids are used widely for Ae. aegypti control but information about resistance remains sparse, and the underlying genetic basis is unknown. Findings from an ongoing study in this internationally significant area are reported here. Aedes aegypti collected from each city were raised to adults and assayed for resistance to permethrin, deltamethrin (with and without the synergist piperonyl butoxide, PBO), fenitrothion, and bendiocarb. Two fragments of the voltage-gated sodium channel (Vgsc), encompassing four previously identified mutation sites, were sequenced and subsequently genotyped to determine associations with resistance. Expression of five candidate genes (CYP9J10, CYP9J28, CYP9J32, CYP9M6, ABCB4) previously associated with pyrethroid resistance was compared between assay survivors and controls. Jeddah and Makkah populations exhibited resistance to multiple insecticides and a similarly high prevalence of resistance to deltamethrin compared to a resistant Cayman strain, with a significant influence of age and exposure duration on survival. PBO pre-exposure increased pyrethroid mortality significantly in the Jeddah, but not the Makkah strain. Three potentially interacting Vgsc mutations were detected: V1016G and S989P were in perfect linkage disequilibrium in each strain and strongly predicted survival, especially in the Makkah strain, but were in negative linkage disequilibrium with 1534C, though some females with the Vgsc triple mutation were detected. The candidate gene CYP9J28 was significantly over-expressed in Jeddah compared to two susceptible reference strains, but none of the candidate genes was consistently up-regulated to a significant level in the Makkah strain. Despite their proximity, Makkah and Jeddah exhibit significant differences in pyrethroid resistance phenotypes, with some evidence to suggest a different balance of mechanisms, for example with more impact associated with CYP450s in the Jeddah strain, and the dual kdr mutations 989P and 1016G in the more resistant Makkah strain. The results overall demonstrate a major role for paired target site mutations in pyrethroid resistance and highlight their utility for diagnostic monitoring.

Twitter Demographics

The data shown below were collected from the profiles of 8 tweeters who shared this research output. Click here to find out more about how the information was compiled.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 95 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Unknown 95 100%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Bachelor 16 17%
Student > Master 16 17%
Researcher 15 16%
Student > Ph. D. Student 11 12%
Other 6 6%
Other 17 18%
Unknown 14 15%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 25 26%
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 17 18%
Medicine and Dentistry 8 8%
Immunology and Microbiology 7 7%
Social Sciences 5 5%
Other 17 18%
Unknown 16 17%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 9. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 27 November 2020.
All research outputs
of 19,508,584 outputs
Outputs from Parasites & Vectors
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Outputs of similar age
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Outputs of similar age from Parasites & Vectors
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Altmetric has tracked 19,508,584 research outputs across all sources so far. Compared to these this one has done well and is in the 84th percentile: it's in the top 25% of all research outputs ever tracked by Altmetric.
So far Altmetric has tracked 4,940 research outputs from this source. They typically receive a little more attention than average, with a mean Attention Score of 5.1. This one has done well, scoring higher than 87% of its peers.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 278,071 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one has done well, scoring higher than 78% of its contemporaries.
We're also able to compare this research output to 1 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one has scored higher than all of them