↓ Skip to main content

Insecticide resistance patterns in Uganda and the effect of indoor residual spraying with bendiocarb on kdr L1014S frequencies in Anopheles gambiae s.s.

Overview of attention for article published in Malaria Journal, April 2017
Altmetric Badge

About this Attention Score

  • In the top 5% of all research outputs scored by Altmetric
  • Among the highest-scoring outputs from this source (#42 of 4,496)
  • High Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age (95th percentile)

Mentioned by

5 news outlets
2 blogs
16 tweeters


7 Dimensions

Readers on

78 Mendeley
You are seeing a free-to-access but limited selection of the activity Altmetric has collected about this research output. Click here to find out more.
Insecticide resistance patterns in Uganda and the effect of indoor residual spraying with bendiocarb on kdr L1014S frequencies in Anopheles gambiae s.s.
Published in
Malaria Journal, April 2017
DOI 10.1186/s12936-017-1799-7
Pubmed ID

Tarekegn A. Abeku, Michelle E. H. Helinski, Matthew J. Kirby, James Ssekitooleko, Chris Bass, Irene Kyomuhangi, Michael Okia, Godfrey Magumba, Sylvia R. Meek


Resistance of malaria vectors to pyrethroid insecticides has been attributed to selection pressure from long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs), indoor residual spraying (IRS), and the use of chemicals in agriculture. The use of different classes of insecticides in combination or by rotation has been recommended for resistance management. The aim of this study was to understand the role of IRS with a carbamate insecticide in management of pyrethroid resistance. Anopheles mosquitoes were collected from multiple sites in nine districts of Uganda (up to five sites per district). Three districts had been sprayed with bendiocarb. Phenotypic resistance was determined using standard susceptibility tests. Molecular assays were used to determine the frequency of resistance mutations. The kdr L1014S homozygote frequency in Anopheles gambiae s.s. was used as the outcome measure to test the effects of various factors using a logistic regression model. Bendiocarb coverage, annual rainfall, altitude, mosquito collection method, LLIN use, LLINs distributed in the previous 5 years, household use of agricultural pesticides, and malaria prevalence in children 2-9 years old were entered as explanatory variables. Tests with pyrethroid insecticides showed resistance and suspected resistance levels in all districts except Apac (a sprayed district). Bendiocarb resistance was not detected in sprayed sites, but was confirmed in one unsprayed site (Soroti). Anopheles gambiae s.s. collected from areas sprayed with bendiocarb had significantly less kdr homozygosity than those collected from unsprayed areas. Mosquitoes collected indoors as adults had significantly higher frequency of kdr homozygotes than mosquitoes collected as larvae, possibly indicating selective sampling of resistant adults, presumably due to exposure to insecticides inside houses that would disproportionately affect susceptible mosquitoes. The effect of LLIN use on kdr homozygosity was significantly modified by annual rainfall. In areas receiving high rainfall, LLIN use was associated with increased kdr homozygosity and this association weakened as rainfall decreased, indicating more frequency of exposure to pyrethroids in relatively wet areas with high vector density. This study suggests that using a carbamate insecticide for IRS in areas with high levels of pyrethroid resistance may reduce kdr frequencies in An. gambiae s.s.

Twitter Demographics

The data shown below were collected from the profiles of 16 tweeters who shared this research output. Click here to find out more about how the information was compiled.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 78 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Unknown 78 100%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Master 19 24%
Student > Ph. D. Student 14 18%
Researcher 12 15%
Student > Doctoral Student 6 8%
Student > Postgraduate 5 6%
Other 11 14%
Unknown 11 14%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 25 32%
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 9 12%
Medicine and Dentistry 8 10%
Environmental Science 4 5%
Nursing and Health Professions 3 4%
Other 13 17%
Unknown 16 21%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 56. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 09 June 2017.
All research outputs
of 15,920,653 outputs
Outputs from Malaria Journal
of 4,496 outputs
Outputs of similar age
of 268,681 outputs
Outputs of similar age from Malaria Journal
of 2 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 15,920,653 research outputs across all sources so far. Compared to these this one has done particularly well and is in the 97th percentile: it's in the top 5% of all research outputs ever tracked by Altmetric.
So far Altmetric has tracked 4,496 research outputs from this source. They typically receive a little more attention than average, with a mean Attention Score of 6.0. This one has done particularly well, scoring higher than 99% of its peers.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 268,681 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one has done particularly well, scoring higher than 95% of its contemporaries.
We're also able to compare this research output to 2 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one has scored higher than all of them