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The cerebrospinal fluid in multiple sclerosis: far beyond the bands

Overview of attention for article published in Einstein (São Paulo), March 2017
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The cerebrospinal fluid in multiple sclerosis: far beyond the bands
Published in
Einstein (São Paulo), March 2017
DOI 10.1590/s1679-45082017rw3706
Pubmed ID

Renan Barros Domingues, Gustavo Bruniera Peres Fernandes, Fernando Brunale Vilela de Moura Leite, Charles Peter Tilbery, Rodrigo Barbosa Thomaz, Gisele Sampaio Silva, Cristóvão Luis Pitangueira Mangueira, Carlos Augusto Senne Soares


The cerebrospinal fluid analysis has been employed for supporting multiple sclerosis diagnosis and ruling out the differential diagnoses. The most classical findings reflect the inflammatory nature of the disease, including mild pleocytosis, mild protein increase, intrathecal synthesis of immunoglobulin G, and, most typically, the presence of oligoclonal bands. In recent years, new biomarkers have emerged in the context of multiple sclerosis. The search for new biomarkers reflect the need of a better evaluation of disease activity, disease progression, and treatment efficiency. A more refined evaluation of disease and therapy status can contribute to better therapeutic choices, particularly in escalation of therapies. This is very relevant taking into account the availability of a greater number of drugs for multiple sclerosis treatment in recent years. In this review, we critically evaluate the current literature regarding the most important cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers in multiple sclerosis. The determination of biomarkers levels, such as chemokine ligand 13, fetuin A, and mainly light neurofilament has shown promising results in the evaluation of this disease, providing information that along with clinical and neuroimaging data may contribute to better therapeutic decisions. RESUMO A análise do líquido cefalorraquidiano tem sido empregada para avaliação diagnóstica da esclerose múltipla e a exclusão dos diagnósticos diferenciais. Os achados clássicos refletem a natureza inflamatória da doença, incluindo discreta pleocitose, leve hiperproteinorraquia, aumento da síntese intratecal de imunoglobulina G e, mais tipicamente, a presença de bandas oligoclonais. Nos últimos anos, surgiram novos biomarcadores para esclerose múltipla, e esta busca por marcadores reflete a necessidade de melhor avaliar a atividade e a progressão da doença, bem como a eficácia terapêutica. Uma avaliação mais refinada da atividade da doença e da resposta aos medicamentos pode contribuir para melhores decisões terapêuticas, particularmente no que se refere à troca de medicação. Isto é muito importante nos dias de hoje, quando surgem novas opções medicamentosas. Neste artigo de revisão, avaliamos criticamente a literatura atual referente aos novos marcadores liquóricos na esclerose múltipla. A mensuração destes marcadores, como a quimiocina CXCL13, fetuína A e, principalmente, o neurofilamento de cadeia leve, demonstrou resultados promissores na avaliação da doença, provendo informações que, em conjunto com dados clínicos e de neuroimagem, podem contribuir para melhores decisões terapêuticas.

Twitter Demographics

The data shown below were collected from the profile of 1 tweeter who shared this research output. Click here to find out more about how the information was compiled.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 82 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Unknown 82 100%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Master 16 20%
Student > Bachelor 15 18%
Student > Postgraduate 9 11%
Student > Doctoral Student 5 6%
Professor 4 5%
Other 10 12%
Unknown 23 28%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Medicine and Dentistry 23 28%
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 8 10%
Neuroscience 6 7%
Engineering 4 5%
Nursing and Health Professions 3 4%
Other 12 15%
Unknown 26 32%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 1. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 27 April 2017.
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