Species within the genus Centaurium readily hybridize and polyploid complexes are often seen in natural populations. We describe phytochemical profiles of newly discovered allohexaploid hybrid, here named Centaurium pannonicum, and its parental tetraploid species C. erythraea and rare C. littorale ssp. compressum. Our aim was to examine chemodiversity of these taxa in the area of Vojvodina (North Serbia) and to perform metabolomics search for chemical classifiers which would provide high resolution discrimination of parental and hybrid individuals. In sum, UHPLC-MS/MS Orbitrap metabolomics fingerprinting revealed seventy compounds in methanol extracts. Despite the lack of qualitative chemical novelty in hybrid plants, UHPLC-qqqMS targeted metabolomics approach, aimed at three secoiridoid compounds and seventeen phenolics, pointed to considerable differences in quantitative composition of these dominant compounds among the plant taxa studied. In addition to the difference in the ploidy levels, the hybrid taxon was well distinguished from both parental species based on metabolite profiles, and, for most individuals, positioned intermediately to the parental taxa in both PCA and hierarchical clustering. After optimizing and comparing several statistical learning methods, it was possible to narrow the number of taxonomic classifiers to five (three xanthones, one secoiridoid glycoside, and one phenolic acid), while increasing the differentiation resolution. The presented metabolomics approach will certainly, along with morphometrics and molecular genetics studies, have high impact on further elucidation of complex relationships among taxa within the genus Centaurium.