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Temporal genetic changes in Plasmodium vivax apical membrane antigen 1 over 19 years of transmission in southern Mexico

Overview of attention for article published in Parasites & Vectors, May 2017
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  • Above-average Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age (55th percentile)

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6 tweeters
1 Facebook page


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Temporal genetic changes in Plasmodium vivax apical membrane antigen 1 over 19 years of transmission in southern Mexico
Published in
Parasites & Vectors, May 2017
DOI 10.1186/s13071-017-2156-y
Pubmed ID

Alejandro Flores-Alanis, Lilia González-Cerón, Frida Santillán, Cecilia Ximenez, Marco A. Sandoval, René Cerritos


Mexico advanced to the pre-elimination phase in 2009 due to a significant reduction in malaria cases, and since 2000, Plasmodium vivax is the only species transmitted. During the last two decades, malaria transmission has been mostly local and isolated to a few regions. It is important to gain further insights into the impact of control measures on the parasite population structure. Hence, the aim of the current study was to determine detailed changes in P. vivax genetic diversity and population structure based on analysing the gene that encodes the apical membrane antigen 1 (pvama1). This analysis covered from control to pre-elimination (1993-2011) in a hypo-endemic region in southern Mexico. The 213 pvama1 I-II sequences presently analysed were grouped into six periods of three years each. They showed low genetic diversity, with 15 haplotypes resolved. Among the DNA sequences, there was a gradual decrease in genetic diversity, the number of mixed genotype infections and the intensity of positive selection, in agreement with the parallel decline in malaria cases. At the same time, linkage disequilibrium (R(2)) increased. The three-dimensional haplotype network revealed that pvama1 I-II haplotypes were separated by 1-11 mutational steps, and between one another by 0-3 unsampled haplotypes. In the temporal network, seven haplotypes were detected in at least two of the six-time layers, and only four distinct haplotypes were evidenced in the pre-elimination phase. Structure analysis indicated that three subpopulations fluctuated over time. Only 8.5% of the samples had mixed ancestry. In the pre-elimination phase, subpopulation P1 was drastically reduced, and the admixture was absent. The results suggest that P. vivax in southern Mexico evolved based on local adaptation into three "pseudoclonal" subpopulations that diversified at the regional level and persisted over time, although with varying frequency. Control measures and climate events influenced the number of malaria cases and the genetic structure. The sharp decrease in parasite diversity and other related genetic parameters during the pre-elimination phase suggests that malaria elimination is possible in the near future. These results are useful for epidemiological surveillance.

Twitter Demographics

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Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 21 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Unknown 21 100%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Ph. D. Student 5 24%
Student > Master 3 14%
Other 3 14%
Researcher 3 14%
Lecturer 1 5%
Other 1 5%
Unknown 5 24%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 5 24%
Medicine and Dentistry 3 14%
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 3 14%
Computer Science 1 5%
Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science 1 5%
Other 0 0%
Unknown 8 38%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 3. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 25 January 2018.
All research outputs
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Outputs from Parasites & Vectors
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Outputs of similar age
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Outputs of similar age from Parasites & Vectors
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Altmetric has tracked 15,920,653 research outputs across all sources so far. This one is in the 45th percentile – i.e., 45% of other outputs scored the same or lower than it.
So far Altmetric has tracked 4,268 research outputs from this source. They receive a mean Attention Score of 4.7. This one has gotten more attention than average, scoring higher than 59% of its peers.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 268,101 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one has gotten more attention than average, scoring higher than 55% of its contemporaries.
We're also able to compare this research output to 1 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one has scored higher than all of them