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Epitope-specific immunotherapy targeting CD4-positive T cells in coeliac disease: two randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 1 studies

Overview of attention for article published in The Lancet Gastroenterology & Hepatology, July 2017
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  • In the top 5% of all research outputs scored by Altmetric
  • Among the highest-scoring outputs from this source (#12 of 503)
  • High Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age (98th percentile)
  • High Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age and source (98th percentile)

Mentioned by

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18 news outlets
blogs
1 blog
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32 tweeters
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1 Facebook page

Citations

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23 Dimensions

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35 Mendeley
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Title
Epitope-specific immunotherapy targeting CD4-positive T cells in coeliac disease: two randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 1 studies
Published in
The Lancet Gastroenterology & Hepatology, July 2017
DOI 10.1016/s2468-1253(17)30110-3
Pubmed ID
Authors

Gautam Goel, Tim King, A James Daveson, Jane M Andrews, Janakan Krishnarajah, Richard Krause, Gregor J E Brown, Ronald Fogel, Charles F Barish, Roger Epstein, Timothy P Kinney, Philip B Miner, Jason A Tye-Din, Adam Girardin, Juha Taavela, Alina Popp, John Sidney, Markku Mäki, Kaela E Goldstein, Patrick H Griffin, Suyue Wang, John L Dzuris, Leslie J Williams, Alessandro Sette, Ramnik J Xavier, Ludvig M Sollid, Bana Jabri, Robert P Anderson

Abstract

A gluten-free diet is the only means to manage coeliac disease, a permanent immune intolerance to gluten. We developed a therapeutic vaccine, Nexvax2, designed to treat coeliac disease. Nexvax2 is an adjuvant-free mix of three peptides that include immunodominant epitopes for gluten-specific CD4-positive T cells. The vaccine is intended to engage and render gluten-specific CD4-positive T cells unresponsive to further antigenic stimulation. We assessed the safety and pharmacodynamics of the vaccine in patients with coeliac disease on a gluten-free diet. We did two randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 1 studies at 12 community sites in Australia, New Zealand, and the USA, in HLA-DQ2·5-positive patients aged 18-70 years who had coeliac disease and were on a gluten-free diet. In the screening period for ascending dose cohorts, participants were randomly assigned (1:1) by central randomisation with a simple block method to a double-blind crossover, placebo-controlled oral gluten challenge. Participants with a negative interferon γ release assay to Nexvax2 peptides after the screening oral gluten challenge were discontinued before dosing. For the biopsy cohorts, the screening period included an endoscopy, and participants with duodenal histology who had a Marsh score of greater than 1 were discontinued before dosing. Participants were subsequently randomly assigned to either Nexvax2 or placebo in ascending dose cohorts (2:1) and in biopsy cohorts (1:1) by central randomisation with a simple block method. In the three-dose study, participants received either Nexvax2 60 μg, 90 μg, or 150 μg weekly, or placebo over 15 days; in a fourth biopsy cohort, patients received either Nexvax2 at the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) or placebo. In the 16-dose study, participants received Nexvax2 150 μg or 300 μg or placebo twice weekly over 53 days; in a third biopsy cohort, patients also received either Nexvax2 at the MTD or placebo. In the 4-week post-treatment period, ascending dose cohorts underwent a further double-blind crossover, placebo-controlled oral gluten challenge, which had a fixed sequence, and biopsy cohorts had a gastroscopy with duodenal biopsies and quantitative histology within 2 weeks without oral gluten challenge. Participants, investigators, and study staff were masked to the treatment assignment, except for the study pharmacist. The primary endpoint was the number and percentage of adverse events in the treatment period in an intention-to-treat analysis. Both trials were completed and closed before data analysis. Trials were registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry, numbers ACTRN12612000355875 and ACTRN12613001331729. Participants were enrolled from Nov 28, 2012, to Aug 14, 2014, in the three-dose study, and from Aug 3, 2012, to Sept 10, 2013, in the 16-dose study. Overall, 62 (57%) of 108 participants were randomly assigned after oral gluten challenge and 20 (71%) of 28 participants were randomly assigned after endoscopy. In the three-dose study, nine participants were randomly allocated to Nexvax2 60 μg and three to placebo (first cohort), nine were allocated to Nexvax2 90 μg and four to placebo (second cohort), eight were allocated to Nexvax2 150 μg and four to placebo (third cohort), and three were allocated to Nexvax2 150 μg and three to placebo (biopsy cohort). In the 16-dose study, eight participants were randomly allocated to Nexvax2 150 μg and four to placebo (first cohort), ten were allocated to Nexvax2 300 μg and three to placebo (second cohort), and seven were allocated to Nexvax2 150 μg and seven to placebo (biopsy cohort). The MTD for Nexvax2 was 150 μg because of transient, acute gastrointestinal adverse events with onset 2-5 h after initial doses of the vaccine, similar to those caused by gluten ingestion. In the ascending dose cohorts in the three-dose study, six (55%) of 11 placebo recipients, five (56%) of nine who received Nexvax2 60 μg, seven (78%) of nine who received Nexvax2 90 μg, and five (63%) of eight who received Nexvax2 150 μg had at least one treatment-emergent adverse event, as did all three (100%) placebo recipients and one (33%) of three Nexvax2 150 μg recipients in the biopsy cohort. In the ascending dose cohorts of the 16-dose study, five (71%) of seven placebo-treated participants, six (75%) of eight who received Nexvax2 150 μg, and all ten (100%) who received Nexvax2 300 μg had at least one treatment-emergent adverse event, as did six (86%) of seven placebo recipients and five (71%) of seven Nexvax2 150 μg recipients in the biopsy cohort. Vomiting, nausea, and headache were the only treatment-emergent adverse events that occurred in at least 5% of participants in either study. Among participants given the MTD, eight gastrointestinal treatment-emergent adverse events occurred in four (50%) of eight participants in the third cohort and none (0%) of three participants in the biopsy cohort in the three-dose study, and five events occurred in five (63%) of eight participants in the first cohort and three events in two (29%) of seven participants in the biopsy cohort of the 16-dose study. Median villous height to crypt depth ratio in distal duodenal biopsies was not significantly different between those who received the vaccine at the MTD on either schedule and those who received placebo. Of the participants who completed the post-treatment oral gluten challenge per protocol, interferon γ release assay to Nexvax2 peptides was negative (responders to treatment) in two (22%) of nine placebo-treated participants in the three-dose study versus two (33%) of six who received Nexvax2 60 μg, five (63%) of eight who received Nexvax2 90 μg, and six (100%) of six who received Nexvax2 150 μg (p=0·007); in the 16-dose study, none (0%) of five placebo-treated participants had a negative assay versus six (75%) of eight who received Nexvax2 150 μg (p=0·021). The MTD of Nexvax2 was 150 μg for twice weekly intradermal administration over 8 weeks, which modified immune responsiveness to Nexvax2 peptides without deterioration in duodenal histology. The gastrointestinal symptoms that followed the first intradermal administration of the vaccine resembled those associated with oral gluten challenge. These findings support continued clinical development of this potential therapeutic vaccine for coeliac disease. ImmusanT.

Twitter Demographics

The data shown below were collected from the profiles of 32 tweeters who shared this research output. Click here to find out more about how the information was compiled.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 35 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Unknown 35 100%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Researcher 9 26%
Student > Master 7 20%
Unspecified 5 14%
Student > Ph. D. Student 3 9%
Other 3 9%
Other 8 23%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Unspecified 11 31%
Medicine and Dentistry 10 29%
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 4 11%
Nursing and Health Professions 2 6%
Social Sciences 2 6%
Other 6 17%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 163. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 21 October 2018.
All research outputs
#73,913
of 12,369,399 outputs
Outputs from The Lancet Gastroenterology & Hepatology
#12
of 503 outputs
Outputs of similar age
#3,764
of 265,055 outputs
Outputs of similar age from The Lancet Gastroenterology & Hepatology
#1
of 58 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 12,369,399 research outputs across all sources so far. Compared to these this one has done particularly well and is in the 99th percentile: it's in the top 5% of all research outputs ever tracked by Altmetric.
So far Altmetric has tracked 503 research outputs from this source. They typically receive a lot more attention than average, with a mean Attention Score of 25.0. This one has done particularly well, scoring higher than 97% of its peers.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 265,055 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one has done particularly well, scoring higher than 98% of its contemporaries.
We're also able to compare this research output to 58 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one has done particularly well, scoring higher than 98% of its contemporaries.