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Decreased intelligence in children and exposure to fluoride and arsenic in drinking water

Overview of attention for article published in Cadernos de Saúde Pública, January 2007
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120 Mendeley
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Title
Decreased intelligence in children and exposure to fluoride and arsenic in drinking water
Published in
Cadernos de Saúde Pública, January 2007
DOI 10.1590/s0102-311x2007001600018
Pubmed ID
Authors

Diana Rocha-Amador, Maria Elena Navarro, Leticia Carrizales, Raúl Morales, Jaqueline Calderón

Abstract

Recent evidence suggests that fluoride (F) and arsenic (As) may adversely affect intelligence quotient (IQ) scores. We explore the association between exposure to F and As in drinking water and intelligence in children. Three rural communities in Mexico with contrasting levels of F and As in drinking water were studied: Moctezuma (F 0.8+/-1.4 mg/L; As 5.8+/-1.3 microg/L); Salitral (F 5.3+/-0.9 mg/L; As 169+/-0.9 microg/L) and 5 de Febrero (F 9.4+/-0.9 mg/L; As 194+/-1.3 microg/L). The final study sample consisted of 132 children from 6 to 10 years old. After controlling for confounders, an inverse association was observed between F in urine and Performance, Verbal, and Full IQ scores (beta values = -13, -15.6, -16.9, respectively). Similar results were observed for F in drinking water (beta values = -6.7, -11.2, -10.2, respectively) and As in drinking water (beta values= -4.30, -6.40, -6.15, respectively). The p-values for all cases were < 0.001. A significant association was observed between As in urine and Full IQ scores (beta = -5.72, p = 0.003). These data suggest that children exposed to either F or As have increased risks of reduced IQ scores.

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Mendeley readers

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Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Netherlands 1 <1%
United States 1 <1%
Portugal 1 <1%
Unknown 117 98%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Researcher 20 17%
Student > Bachelor 17 14%
Student > Master 15 13%
Student > Ph. D. Student 14 12%
Student > Doctoral Student 12 10%
Other 24 20%
Unknown 18 15%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 20 17%
Environmental Science 18 15%
Medicine and Dentistry 18 15%
Psychology 11 9%
Engineering 6 5%
Other 23 19%
Unknown 24 20%