In November and December of 2013, a large mortality event involving 15,000 - 20,000 eared grebes (Podiceps nigricollis) occurred at the Great Salt Lake (GSL), UT. The onset of the outbreak in grebes was followed by a mortality event in > 86 bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus). During the die-off, West Nile virus (WNV) was detected by RT-PCR or viral culture in carcasses of grebes and eagles submitted to the National Wildlife Health Center. However, no mosquito activity, the primary vector of WNV, was detected by the State of Utah's WNV monitoring program. Transmission of WNV has rarely been reported during the winter in North America in the absence of known mosquito activity; however, the size of this die-off, the habitat in which it occurred, and the species involved are unique. We experimentally investigated whether WNV could survive in water with a high saline content, as found at the GSL, and whether brine shrimp, the primary food of migrating eared grebes on the GSL, could have played a role in transmission of WNV to feeding birds. We found that WNV can survive up to 72 h at 4°C in water containing 30 - 150 ppt NaCl and brine shrimp, incubated with WNV in 30 ppt NaCl, may adsorb WNV to their cuticle and, through feeding, may infect epithelial cells of their gut. Both mechanisms may have potentiated the WNV die-off in migrating eared grebes on the GSL.IMPORTANCE Following a major West Nile virus die-off of eared grebes and bald eagles at the Great Salt Lake (GSL), UT in November -- December, 2013, this study assessed the survival of West Nile virus (WNV) in water as saline as the GSL and whether brine shrimp, the major food for migrating grebes, could have played a role as vectors for the virus. While mosquitoes are the major vector of WNV, under certain circumstances transmission may occur through contaminated water and invertebrates as food.