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Sex-Based Differences in Susceptibility to Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Infection

Overview of attention for article published in The Journal of Immunology, April 2017
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About this Attention Score

  • In the top 5% of all research outputs scored by Altmetric
  • One of the highest-scoring outputs from this source (#1 of 16,914)
  • High Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age (99th percentile)
  • High Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age and source (99th percentile)

Mentioned by

news
113 news outlets
blogs
12 blogs
policy
1 policy source
twitter
324 tweeters
facebook
1 Facebook page
video
1 video uploader

Citations

dimensions_citation
216 Dimensions

Readers on

mendeley
267 Mendeley
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Title
Sex-Based Differences in Susceptibility to Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Infection
Published in
The Journal of Immunology, April 2017
DOI 10.4049/jimmunol.1601896
Pubmed ID
Authors

Rudragouda Channappanavar, Craig Fett, Matthias Mack, Patrick P. Ten Eyck, David K. Meyerholz, Stanley Perlman

Abstract

Pathogenic human coronaviruses (CoVs), such as the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-CoV and the Middle East respiratory syndrome-CoV, cause acute respiratory illness. Epidemiological data from the 2002-2003 SARS epidemic and recent Middle East respiratory syndrome outbreak indicate that there may be sex-dependent differences in disease outcomes. To investigate these differences, we infected male and female mice of different age groups with SARS-CoV and analyzed their susceptibility to the infection. Our results showed that male mice were more susceptible to SARS-CoV infection compared with age-matched females. The degree of sex bias to SARS-CoV infection increased with advancing age, such that middle-aged mice showed much more pronounced differences compared with young mice. Enhanced susceptibility of male mice to SARS-CoV was associated with elevated virus titers, enhanced vascular leakage, and alveolar edema. These changes were accompanied by increased accumulation of inflammatory monocyte macrophages and neutrophils in the lungs of male mice, and depletion of inflammatory monocyte macrophages partially protected these mice from lethal SARS. Moreover, the sex-specific differences were independent of T and B cell responses. Furthermore, ovariectomy or treating female mice with an estrogen receptor antagonist increased mortality, indicating a protective effect for estrogen receptor signaling in mice infected with SARS-CoV. Together, these data suggest that sex differences in the susceptibility to SARS-CoV in mice parallel those observed in patients and also identify estrogen receptor signaling as critical for protection in females.

Twitter Demographics

The data shown below were collected from the profiles of 324 tweeters who shared this research output. Click here to find out more about how the information was compiled.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 267 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Unknown 267 100%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Researcher 41 15%
Student > Bachelor 34 13%
Student > Ph. D. Student 31 12%
Student > Master 25 9%
Student > Doctoral Student 20 7%
Other 61 23%
Unknown 55 21%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Medicine and Dentistry 68 25%
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 40 15%
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 19 7%
Immunology and Microbiology 15 6%
Nursing and Health Professions 11 4%
Other 37 14%
Unknown 77 29%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 1196. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 16 October 2020.
All research outputs
#4,779
of 16,094,294 outputs
Outputs from The Journal of Immunology
#1
of 16,914 outputs
Outputs of similar age
#156
of 269,052 outputs
Outputs of similar age from The Journal of Immunology
#1
of 207 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 16,094,294 research outputs across all sources so far. Compared to these this one has done particularly well and is in the 99th percentile: it's in the top 5% of all research outputs ever tracked by Altmetric.
So far Altmetric has tracked 16,914 research outputs from this source. They receive a mean Attention Score of 4.6. This one has done particularly well, scoring higher than 99% of its peers.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 269,052 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one has done particularly well, scoring higher than 99% of its contemporaries.
We're also able to compare this research output to 207 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one has done particularly well, scoring higher than 99% of its contemporaries.