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Protein Crystallography

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Cover of 'Protein Crystallography'

Table of Contents

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    Book Overview
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    Chapter 1 Expression and Purification of Recombinant Proteins in Escherichia coli with a His6 or Dual His6-MBP Tag
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    Chapter 2 Protein Crystallization
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    Chapter 3 Advanced Methods of Protein Crystallization
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    Chapter 4 The “Sticky Patch” Model of Crystallization and Modification of Proteins for Enhanced Crystallizability
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    Chapter 5 Crystallization of Membrane Proteins: An Overview
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    Chapter 6 Locating and Visualizing Crystals for X-Ray Diffraction Experiments
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    Chapter 7 Collection of X-Ray Diffraction Data from Macromolecular Crystals
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    Chapter 8 Identifying and Overcoming Crystal Pathologies: Disorder and Twinning
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    Chapter 9 Applications of X-Ray Micro-Beam for Data Collection
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    Chapter 10 Serial Synchrotron X-Ray Crystallography (SSX)
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    Chapter 11 Time-Resolved Macromolecular Crystallography at Modern X-Ray Sources
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    Chapter 12 Structure Determination Using X-Ray Free-Electron Laser Pulses
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    Chapter 13 Processing of XFEL Data
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    Chapter 14 Many Ways to Derivatize Macromolecules and Their Crystals for Phasing
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    Chapter 15 Experimental Phasing: Substructure Solution and Density Modification as Implemented in SHELX
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    Chapter 16 Contemporary Use of Anomalous Diffraction in Biomolecular Structure Analysis
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    Chapter 17 Long-Wavelength X-Ray Diffraction and Its Applications in Macromolecular Crystallography
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    Chapter 18 Acknowledging Errors: Advanced Molecular Replacement with Phaser
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    Chapter 19 Rosetta Structure Prediction as a Tool for Solving Difficult Molecular Replacement Problems
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    Chapter 20 Radiation Damage in Macromolecular Crystallography
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    Chapter 21 Boxes of Model Building and Visualization
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    Chapter 22 Structure Refinement at Atomic Resolution
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    Chapter 23 Low Resolution Refinement of Atomic Models Against Crystallographic Data
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    Chapter 24 Stereochemistry and Validation of Macromolecular Structures
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    Chapter 25 Validation of Protein–Ligand Crystal Structure Models: Small Molecule and Peptide Ligands
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    Chapter 26 Protein Data Bank (PDB): The Single Global Macromolecular Structure Archive
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    Chapter 27 Databases, Repositories, and Other Data Resources in Structural Biology
Attention for Chapter 2: Protein Crystallization
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Chapter title
Protein Crystallization
Chapter number 2
Book title
Protein Crystallography
Published in
Methods in molecular biology, January 2017
DOI 10.1007/978-1-4939-7000-1_2
Pubmed ID
Book ISBNs
978-1-4939-6998-2, 978-1-4939-7000-1
Authors

Alexander McPherson

Editors

Alexander Wlodawer, Zbigniew Dauter, Mariusz Jaskolski

Abstract

Protein crystallization was discovered by chance nearly 200 years ago and was developed in the late nineteenth century as a powerful purification tool, and a demonstration of chemical purity. The crystallization of proteins, nucleic acids, and large biological complexes, such as viruses, depends on the creation of a solution that is supersaturated in the macromolecule, but exhibits conditions that do not significantly perturb its natural state. Supersaturation is produced through the addition of mild precipitating agents such as neutral salts or polymers, and by manipulation of various parameters that include temperature, ionic strength, and pH. Also important in the crystallization process are factors that can affect the structural state of the macromolecule, such as metal ions, inhibitors, cofactors, or other conventional small molecules. A variety of approaches have been developed that combine the spectrum of factors that effect and promote crystallization, and among the most widely used are vapor diffusion, dialysis, batch, and liquid-liquid diffusion. Successes in macromolecular crystallization have multiplied rapidly in recent years due to the advent of practical, easy-to-use screening kits, and the application of laboratory robotics.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 437 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
United States 8 2%
United Kingdom 4 <1%
Germany 3 <1%
Netherlands 2 <1%
Brazil 1 <1%
France 1 <1%
Italy 1 <1%
Chile 1 <1%
Israel 1 <1%
Other 7 2%
Unknown 408 93%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Ph. D. Student 117 27%
Researcher 76 17%
Student > Bachelor 75 17%
Student > Master 69 16%
Professor 17 4%
Other 57 13%
Unknown 26 6%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 162 37%
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 85 19%
Chemistry 58 13%
Engineering 28 6%
Physics and Astronomy 17 4%
Other 53 12%
Unknown 34 8%