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Protein Crystallography

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Cover of 'Protein Crystallography'

Table of Contents

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    Book Overview
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    Chapter 1 Expression and Purification of Recombinant Proteins in Escherichia coli with a His6 or Dual His6-MBP Tag
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    Chapter 2 Protein Crystallization
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    Chapter 3 Advanced Methods of Protein Crystallization
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    Chapter 4 The “Sticky Patch” Model of Crystallization and Modification of Proteins for Enhanced Crystallizability
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    Chapter 5 Crystallization of Membrane Proteins: An Overview
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    Chapter 6 Locating and Visualizing Crystals for X-Ray Diffraction Experiments
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    Chapter 7 Collection of X-Ray Diffraction Data from Macromolecular Crystals
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    Chapter 8 Identifying and Overcoming Crystal Pathologies: Disorder and Twinning
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    Chapter 9 Applications of X-Ray Micro-Beam for Data Collection
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    Chapter 10 Serial Synchrotron X-Ray Crystallography (SSX)
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    Chapter 11 Time-Resolved Macromolecular Crystallography at Modern X-Ray Sources
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    Chapter 12 Structure Determination Using X-Ray Free-Electron Laser Pulses
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    Chapter 13 Processing of XFEL Data
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    Chapter 14 Many Ways to Derivatize Macromolecules and Their Crystals for Phasing
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    Chapter 15 Experimental Phasing: Substructure Solution and Density Modification as Implemented in SHELX
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    Chapter 16 Contemporary Use of Anomalous Diffraction in Biomolecular Structure Analysis
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    Chapter 17 Long-Wavelength X-Ray Diffraction and Its Applications in Macromolecular Crystallography
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    Chapter 18 Acknowledging Errors: Advanced Molecular Replacement with Phaser
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    Chapter 19 Rosetta Structure Prediction as a Tool for Solving Difficult Molecular Replacement Problems
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    Chapter 20 Radiation Damage in Macromolecular Crystallography
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    Chapter 21 Boxes of Model Building and Visualization
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    Chapter 22 Structure Refinement at Atomic Resolution
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    Chapter 23 Low Resolution Refinement of Atomic Models Against Crystallographic Data
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    Chapter 24 Stereochemistry and Validation of Macromolecular Structures
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    Chapter 25 Validation of Protein–Ligand Crystal Structure Models: Small Molecule and Peptide Ligands
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    Chapter 26 Protein Data Bank (PDB): The Single Global Macromolecular Structure Archive
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    Chapter 27 Databases, Repositories, and Other Data Resources in Structural Biology
Attention for Chapter 6: Locating and Visualizing Crystals for X-Ray Diffraction Experiments
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Chapter title
Locating and Visualizing Crystals for X-Ray Diffraction Experiments
Chapter number 6
Book title
Protein Crystallography
Published in
Methods in molecular biology, January 2017
DOI 10.1007/978-1-4939-7000-1_6
Pubmed ID
Book ISBNs
978-1-4939-6998-2, 978-1-4939-7000-1
Authors

Michael Becker, David J. Kissick, Craig M. Ogata

Editors

Alexander Wlodawer, Zbigniew Dauter, Mariusz Jaskolski

Abstract

Macromolecular crystallography has advanced from using macroscopic crystals, which might be >1 mm on a side, to crystals that are essentially invisible to the naked eye, or even under a standard laboratory microscope. As crystallography requires recognizing crystals when they are produced, and then placing them in an X-ray, electron, or neutron beam, this provides challenges, particularly in the case of advanced X-ray sources, where beams have very small cross sections and crystals may be vanishingly small. Methods for visualizing crystals are reviewed here, and examples of different types of cases are presented, including: standard crystals, crystals grown in mesophase, in situ crystallography, and crystals grown for X-ray Free Electron Laser or Micro Electron Diffraction experiments. As most techniques have limitations, it is desirable to have a range of complementary techniques available to identify and locate crystals. Ideally, a given technique should not cause sample damage, but sometimes it is necessary to use techniques where damage can only be minimized. For extreme circumstances, the act of probing location may be coincident with collecting X-ray diffraction data. Future challenges and directions are also discussed.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 8 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Unknown 8 100%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Researcher 4 50%
Student > Ph. D. Student 1 13%
Student > Bachelor 1 13%
Professor 1 13%
Unknown 1 13%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 3 38%
Computer Science 1 13%
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 1 13%
Chemistry 1 13%
Unknown 2 25%