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Vaccines for Invasive Fungal Infections

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Cover of 'Vaccines for Invasive Fungal Infections'

Table of Contents

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    Book Overview
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    Chapter 1 Mouse Immunization with Radioattenuated Yeast Cells of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis
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    Chapter 2 Heat-Killed Yeast as a Pan-Fungal Vaccine
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    Chapter 3 Immunoinformatics as a Tool for New Antifungal Vaccines
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    Chapter 4 Rational Design of T Lymphocyte Epitope-Based Vaccines Against Coccidioides Infection
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    Chapter 5 Identification of Fungal T Cell Epitopes by Mass Spectrometry-Based Proteomics
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    Chapter 6 Intranasal Antifungal Vaccination Using DNA-Transfected Dendritic Cells
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    Chapter 7 DNAhsp65 Vaccine as Therapy against Paracoccidioidomycosis
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    Chapter 8 Idiotypic Antifungal Vaccination: Immunoprotection by Antiidiotypic Antibiotic Antibodies
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    Chapter 9 Peptide Vaccine Against Paracoccidioidomycosis
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    Chapter 10 Methodology for Anti-Cryptococcal Vaccine Development
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    Chapter 11 Beta-Glucan Particles as Vaccine Adjuvant Carriers
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    Chapter 12 Th1-Inducing Agents in Prophylaxis and Therapy for Paracoccidioidomycosis
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    Chapter 13 Nanoparticle-Based Mycosis Vaccine
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    Chapter 14 Yeast Expressing Gp43 Protein as a Vaccine Against Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Infection
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    Chapter 15 Vaccination with Phage-Displayed Antigenic Epitope
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    Chapter 16 Preparation of an Oral Vaccine by Proteome Analysis and Molecular Display Technology
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    Chapter 17 Precise and Efficient In-Frame Integration of an Exogenous GFP Tag in Aspergillus fumigatus by a CRISPR System
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    Chapter 18 Endpoint Assessment in Rabbit Models of Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis and Mucormycosis
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    Chapter 19 CD4+ T Cells Mediate Aspergillosis Vaccine Protection
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    Chapter 20 T-Cell-Mediated Cross-Protective Immunity
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    Chapter 21 Assessment of Post-Vaccination Phagocytic Activation Using Candida albicans Killing Assays
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    Chapter 22 Immunization with Antigen-Pulsed Dendritic Cells Against Highly Virulent Cryptococcus gattii Infection: Analysis of Cytokine-Producing T Cells
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    Chapter 23 Testing Antifungal Vaccines in an Animal Model of Invasive Candidiasis and in Human Mucosal Candidiasis
Attention for Chapter 2: Heat-Killed Yeast as a Pan-Fungal Vaccine
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Chapter title
Heat-Killed Yeast as a Pan-Fungal Vaccine
Chapter number 2
Book title
Vaccines for Invasive Fungal Infections
Published in
Methods in molecular biology, January 2017
DOI 10.1007/978-1-4939-7104-6_2
Pubmed ID
Book ISBNs
978-1-4939-7103-9, 978-1-4939-7104-6
Authors

Marife Martinez, Karl V. Clemons, David A. Stevens M.D., David A. Stevens

Editors

Markus Kalkum, Margarita Semis

Abstract

Fungal infections continue to rise worldwide. Antifungal therapy has long been a mainstay for the treatment of these infections, but often can fail for a number of reasons. These include acquired or innate drug resistance of the causative agent, poor drug penetration into the affected tissues, lack of cidal activity of the drug and drug toxicities that limit therapy. In some instances, such as coccidioidal meningitis, therapy is life-long. In addition, few new antifungal drugs are under development. In light of this information a preventative vaccine is highly desirable. Although numerous investigators have worked toward the development of fungal vaccines, none have become commercially available for use in humans. In the course of our studies, we have discovered that heat-killed yeast (HKY) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae can be used as a vaccine and have shown that it has efficacy in the prevention and reduction of five different fungal infections when used experimentally in mice, which raises the possibility of a pan-fungal vaccine preparation. In our studies we grow S. cerevisiae in broth and heat-kill the organism at 70 ° C for 3 h. The number of dead yeast cells is adjusted and mice are vaccinated subcutaneously beginning 3-7 weeks prior to infection. After infection, efficacy is assessed on the basis of survival and residual burden of the fungus in the target organs. Alternatively, efficacy can be assessed solely on fungal burden at a predetermined time postinfection. Although itself it is unlikely to be moved toward commercialization, HKY can be used a positive control vaccine for studies on specific molecular entities as vaccines, and as a guidepost for the key elements of potential, more purified, pan-fungal vaccine preparations.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 8 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Unknown 8 100%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Bachelor 2 25%
Student > Master 1 13%
Student > Ph. D. Student 1 13%
Researcher 1 13%
Professor > Associate Professor 1 13%
Other 0 0%
Unknown 2 25%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 2 25%
Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science 1 13%
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 1 13%
Immunology and Microbiology 1 13%
Unknown 3 38%