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Prevalence and Public Health Implications of State Laws that Criminalize Potential HIV Exposure in the United States.

Overview of attention for article published in AIDS & Behavior, March 2014
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  • In the top 5% of all research outputs scored by Altmetric
  • One of the highest-scoring outputs from this source (#5 of 2,241)
  • High Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age (98th percentile)
  • High Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age and source (98th percentile)

Mentioned by

news
10 news outlets
blogs
3 blogs
policy
1 policy source
twitter
16 tweeters
facebook
4 Facebook pages
wikipedia
1 Wikipedia page

Citations

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51 Dimensions

Readers on

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84 Mendeley
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Title
Prevalence and Public Health Implications of State Laws that Criminalize Potential HIV Exposure in the United States.
Published in
AIDS & Behavior, March 2014
DOI 10.1007/s10461-014-0724-0
Pubmed ID
Authors

J. Stan Lehman, Meredith H. Carr, Allison J. Nichol, Alberto Ruisanchez, David W. Knight, Anne E. Langford, Simone C. Gray, Jonathan H. Mermin, Lehman JS, Carr MH, Nichol AJ, Ruisanchez A, Knight DW, Langford AE, Gray SC, Mermin JH

Abstract

For the past three decades, legislative approaches to prevent HIV transmission have been used at the national, state, and local levels. One punitive legislative approach has been enactment of laws that criminalize behaviors associated with HIV exposure (HIV-specific criminal laws). In the USA, HIV-specific criminal laws have largely been shaped by state laws. These laws impose criminal penalties on persons who know they have HIV and subsequently engage in certain behaviors, most commonly sexual activity without prior disclosure of HIV-positive serostatus. These laws have been subject to intense public debate. Using public health law research methods, data from the legal database WestlawNext© were analyzed to describe the prevalence and characteristics of laws that criminalize potential HIV exposure in the 50 states (plus the District of Columbia) and to examine the implications of these laws for public health practice. The first state laws were enacted in 1986; as of 2011 a total of 67 laws had been enacted in 33 states. By 1995, nearly two-thirds of all laws had been enacted; by 2000, 85 % of laws had been enacted; and since 2000, an additional 10 laws have been enacted. Twenty-four states require persons who are aware that they have HIV to disclose their status to sexual partners and 14 states require disclosure to needle-sharing partners. Twenty-five states criminalize one or more behaviors that pose a low or negligible risk for HIV transmission. Nearly two-thirds of states in the USA have legislation that criminalizes potential HIV exposure. Many of these laws criminalize behaviors that pose low or negligible risk for HIV transmission. The majority of laws were passed before studies showed that antiretroviral therapy (ART) reduces HIV transmission risk and most laws do not account for HIV prevention measures that reduce transmission risk, such as condom use, ART, or pre-exposure prophylaxis. States with HIV-specific criminal laws are encouraged to use the findings of this paper to re-examine those laws, assess the laws' alignment with current evidence regarding HIV transmission risk, and consider whether the laws are the best vehicle to achieve their intended purposes.

Twitter Demographics

The data shown below were collected from the profiles of 16 tweeters who shared this research output. Click here to find out more about how the information was compiled.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 84 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
United States 1 1%
Unknown 83 99%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Master 23 27%
Student > Bachelor 11 13%
Researcher 11 13%
Student > Doctoral Student 9 11%
Student > Ph. D. Student 9 11%
Other 21 25%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Medicine and Dentistry 24 29%
Social Sciences 16 19%
Nursing and Health Professions 15 18%
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 7 8%
Psychology 6 7%
Other 16 19%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 119. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 25 September 2017.
All research outputs
#101,281
of 11,823,343 outputs
Outputs from AIDS & Behavior
#5
of 2,241 outputs
Outputs of similar age
#1,894
of 187,674 outputs
Outputs of similar age from AIDS & Behavior
#1
of 57 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 11,823,343 research outputs across all sources so far. Compared to these this one has done particularly well and is in the 99th percentile: it's in the top 5% of all research outputs ever tracked by Altmetric.
So far Altmetric has tracked 2,241 research outputs from this source. They receive a mean Attention Score of 4.4. This one has done particularly well, scoring higher than 99% of its peers.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 187,674 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one has done particularly well, scoring higher than 98% of its contemporaries.
We're also able to compare this research output to 57 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one has done particularly well, scoring higher than 98% of its contemporaries.