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Microinjection of 2-arachidonoyl glycerol into the rat ventral hippocampus differentially modulates contextually induced fear, depending on a persistent pain state

Overview of attention for article published in European Journal of Neuroscience, February 2014
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About this Attention Score

  • Above-average Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age (57th percentile)
  • Good Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age and source (73rd percentile)

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Citations

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11 Dimensions

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31 Mendeley
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Title
Microinjection of 2-arachidonoyl glycerol into the rat ventral hippocampus differentially modulates contextually induced fear, depending on a persistent pain state
Published in
European Journal of Neuroscience, February 2014
DOI 10.1111/ejn.12452
Pubmed ID
Authors

Kieran Rea, Gemma K. Ford, Weredeselam M. Olango, Brendan Harhen, Michelle Roche, David P. Finn

Abstract

The endogenous cannabinoid (endocannabinoid) system plays a key role in the modulation of aversive and nociceptive behaviour. The components of the endocannabinoid system are expressed throughout the hippocampus, a brain region implicated in both conditioned fear and pain. In light of evidence that pain can impact on the expression of fear-related behaviour, and vice versa, we hypothesised that exogenous administration of the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG) into the ventral hippocampus (vHip) would differentially regulate fear responding in the absence vs. the presence of formalin-evoked nociceptive tone. Fear-conditioned rats showed significantly increased freezing and a reduction in formalin-evoked nociceptive behaviour upon re-exposure to a context previously paired with footshock. Bilateral microinjection of 2-AG into the vHip significantly reduced contextually induced freezing in non-formalin-treated rats, and reduced formalin-evoked nociceptive behaviour in non-fear-conditioned rats. In contrast, 2-AG microinjection had no effect on fear responding in formalin-treated rats, and no effect on nociceptive behaviour in fear-conditioned rats. The inhibitory effect of 2-AG on fear-related behaviour, but not pain-related behaviour, was blocked by co-administration of the cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) antagonist/inverse agonist rimonabant. Tissue levels of the endocannabinoids N-arachidonoylethanolamide (anandamide, AEA) and 2-AG were similar in the vHip of fear-conditioned rats receiving formalin injection and the vHip of fear-conditioned rats receiving saline injection. However, the levels of AEA and 2-AG were significantly lower in the contralateral ventrolateral periaqueductal grey of formalin-treated fear-conditioned rats than in that of their saline-treated counterparts. These data suggest that 2-AG-CB1 receptor signalling in the vHip has an anti-aversive effect, and that this effect is abolished in the presence of a persistent pain state.

Twitter Demographics

The data shown below were collected from the profiles of 2 tweeters who shared this research output. Click here to find out more about how the information was compiled.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 31 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
United Kingdom 1 3%
United States 1 3%
Canada 1 3%
Unknown 28 90%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Ph. D. Student 8 26%
Student > Bachelor 6 19%
Researcher 3 10%
Professor 3 10%
Student > Postgraduate 2 6%
Other 7 23%
Unknown 2 6%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 8 26%
Medicine and Dentistry 6 19%
Neuroscience 5 16%
Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science 3 10%
Psychology 3 10%
Other 3 10%
Unknown 3 10%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 3. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 25 April 2014.
All research outputs
#9,035,605
of 16,650,962 outputs
Outputs from European Journal of Neuroscience
#3,216
of 4,943 outputs
Outputs of similar age
#82,206
of 195,110 outputs
Outputs of similar age from European Journal of Neuroscience
#19
of 79 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 16,650,962 research outputs across all sources so far. This one is in the 45th percentile – i.e., 45% of other outputs scored the same or lower than it.
So far Altmetric has tracked 4,943 research outputs from this source. They typically receive a little more attention than average, with a mean Attention Score of 6.6. This one is in the 33rd percentile – i.e., 33% of its peers scored the same or lower than it.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 195,110 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one has gotten more attention than average, scoring higher than 57% of its contemporaries.
We're also able to compare this research output to 79 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one has gotten more attention than average, scoring higher than 73% of its contemporaries.