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Increasing chloride in rivers of the conterminous U.S. and linkages to potential corrosivity and lead action level exceedances in drinking water

Overview of attention for article published in Science of the Total Environment, February 2018
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About this Attention Score

  • In the top 25% of all research outputs scored by Altmetric
  • High Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age (91st percentile)
  • High Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age and source (97th percentile)

Mentioned by

news
1 news outlet
blogs
1 blog
twitter
17 tweeters

Citations

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60 Dimensions

Readers on

mendeley
111 Mendeley
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Title
Increasing chloride in rivers of the conterminous U.S. and linkages to potential corrosivity and lead action level exceedances in drinking water
Published in
Science of the Total Environment, February 2018
DOI 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.07.119
Pubmed ID
Authors

E.G. Stets, C.J. Lee, D.A. Lytle, M.R. Schock

Abstract

Corrosion in water-distribution systems is a costly problem and controlling corrosion is a primary focus of efforts to reduce lead (Pb) and copper (Cu) in tap water. High chloride concentrations can increase the tendency of water to cause corrosion in distribution systems. The effects of chloride are also expressed in several indices commonly used to describe the potential corrosivity of water, the chloride-sulfate mass ratio (CSMR) and the Larson Ratio (LR). Elevated CSMR has been linked to the galvanic corrosion of Pb whereas LR is indicative of the corrosivity of water to iron and steel. Despite the known importance of chloride, CSMR, and LR to the potential corrosivity of water, monitoring of seasonal and interannual changes in these parameters is not common among water purveyors. We analyzed long-term trends (1992-2012) and the current status (2010-2015) of chloride, CSMR, and LR in order to investigate the short and long-term temporal variability in potential corrosivity of US streams and rivers. Among all sites in the trend analyses, chloride, CSMR, and LR increased slightly, with median changes of 0.9mgL(-1), 0.05, and 0.01, respectively. However, urban-dominated sites had much larger increases, 46.9mgL(-1), 2.50, and 0.53, respectively. Median CSMR and LR in urban streams (4.01 and 1.34, respectively) greatly exceeded thresholds found to cause corrosion in water distribution systems (0.5 and 0.3, respectively). Urbanization was strongly correlated with elevated chloride, CSMR, and LR, especially in the most snow-affected areas in the study, which are most likely to use road salt. The probability of Pb action-level exceedances (ALEs) in drinking water facilities increased along with raw surface water CSMR, indicating a statistical connection between surface water chemistry and corrosion in drinking water facilities. Optimal corrosion control will require monitoring of critical constituents reflecting the potential corrosivity in surface waters.

Twitter Demographics

The data shown below were collected from the profiles of 17 tweeters who shared this research output. Click here to find out more about how the information was compiled.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 111 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Unknown 111 100%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Ph. D. Student 25 23%
Student > Master 20 18%
Researcher 14 13%
Student > Bachelor 14 13%
Professor 7 6%
Other 15 14%
Unknown 16 14%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Environmental Science 35 32%
Engineering 18 16%
Earth and Planetary Sciences 11 10%
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 5 5%
Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science 3 3%
Other 17 15%
Unknown 22 20%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 27. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 19 November 2018.
All research outputs
#945,452
of 18,443,041 outputs
Outputs from Science of the Total Environment
#914
of 18,470 outputs
Outputs of similar age
#19,948
of 232,001 outputs
Outputs of similar age from Science of the Total Environment
#3
of 68 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 18,443,041 research outputs across all sources so far. Compared to these this one has done particularly well and is in the 94th percentile: it's in the top 10% of all research outputs ever tracked by Altmetric.
So far Altmetric has tracked 18,470 research outputs from this source. They typically receive more attention than average, with a mean Attention Score of 8.3. This one has done particularly well, scoring higher than 95% of its peers.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 232,001 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one has done particularly well, scoring higher than 91% of its contemporaries.
We're also able to compare this research output to 68 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one has done particularly well, scoring higher than 97% of its contemporaries.