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Experimental evidence of massive-scale emotional contagion through social networks

Overview of attention for article published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, June 2014
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About this Attention Score

  • In the top 5% of all research outputs scored by Altmetric
  • One of the highest-scoring outputs from this source (#1 of 83,071)
  • High Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age (99th percentile)
  • High Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age and source (99th percentile)

Citations

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1047 Dimensions

Readers on

mendeley
1621 Mendeley
citeulike
15 CiteULike
Title
Experimental evidence of massive-scale emotional contagion through social networks
Published in
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, June 2014
DOI 10.1073/pnas.1320040111
Pubmed ID
Authors

A. D. I. Kramer, J. E. Guillory, J. T. Hancock

Abstract

Emotional states can be transferred to others via emotional contagion, leading people to experience the same emotions without their awareness. Emotional contagion is well established in laboratory experiments, with people transferring positive and negative emotions to others. Data from a large real-world social network, collected over a 20-y period suggests that longer-lasting moods (e.g., depression, happiness) can be transferred through networks [Fowler JH, Christakis NA (2008) BMJ 337:a2338], although the results are controversial. In an experiment with people who use Facebook, we test whether emotional contagion occurs outside of in-person interaction between individuals by reducing the amount of emotional content in the News Feed. When positive expressions were reduced, people produced fewer positive posts and more negative posts; when negative expressions were reduced, the opposite pattern occurred. These results indicate that emotions expressed by others on Facebook influence our own emotions, constituting experimental evidence for massive-scale contagion via social networks. This work also suggests that, in contrast to prevailing assumptions, in-person interaction and nonverbal cues are not strictly necessary for emotional contagion, and that the observation of others' positive experiences constitutes a positive experience for people.

Twitter Demographics

The data shown below were collected from the profiles of 4,226 tweeters who shared this research output. Click here to find out more about how the information was compiled.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 1,621 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
United States 50 3%
United Kingdom 22 1%
Germany 12 <1%
Brazil 11 <1%
Spain 11 <1%
Japan 9 <1%
France 6 <1%
Portugal 5 <1%
Italy 5 <1%
Other 52 3%
Unknown 1438 89%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Ph. D. Student 388 24%
Student > Master 257 16%
Student > Bachelor 212 13%
Researcher 207 13%
Student > Doctoral Student 95 6%
Other 347 21%
Unknown 115 7%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Psychology 312 19%
Social Sciences 310 19%
Computer Science 263 16%
Business, Management and Accounting 100 6%
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 87 5%
Other 377 23%
Unknown 172 11%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 7538. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 05 April 2020.
All research outputs
#50
of 14,608,545 outputs
Outputs from Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
#1
of 83,071 outputs
Outputs of similar age
#1
of 187,965 outputs
Outputs of similar age from Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
#1
of 944 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 14,608,545 research outputs across all sources so far. Compared to these this one has done particularly well and is in the 99th percentile: it's in the top 5% of all research outputs ever tracked by Altmetric.
So far Altmetric has tracked 83,071 research outputs from this source. They typically receive a lot more attention than average, with a mean Attention Score of 26.1. This one has done particularly well, scoring higher than 99% of its peers.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 187,965 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one has done particularly well, scoring higher than 99% of its contemporaries.
We're also able to compare this research output to 944 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one has done particularly well, scoring higher than 99% of its contemporaries.