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A widespread family of polymorphic toxins encoded by temperate phages

Overview of attention for article published in BMC Biology, August 2017
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About this Attention Score

  • In the top 25% of all research outputs scored by Altmetric
  • High Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age (84th percentile)

Mentioned by

26 tweeters


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41 Mendeley
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A widespread family of polymorphic toxins encoded by temperate phages
Published in
BMC Biology, August 2017
DOI 10.1186/s12915-017-0415-1
Pubmed ID

Anne Jamet, Marie Touchon, Bruno Ribeiro-Gonçalves, João André Carriço, Alain Charbit, Xavier Nassif, Mario Ramirez, Eduardo P. C. Rocha


Polymorphic toxins (PTs) are multi-domain bacterial exotoxins belonging to distinct families that share common features in terms of domain organization. PTs are found in all major bacterial clades, including many toxic effectors of type V and type VI secretion systems. PTs modulate the dynamics of microbial communities by killing or inhibiting the growth of bacterial competitors lacking protective immunity proteins. In this work, we identified a novel widespread family of PTs, named MuF toxins, which were exclusively encoded within temperate phages and their prophages. By analyzing the predicted proteomes of 1845 bacteriophages and 2464 bacterial genomes, we found that MuF-containing proteins were frequently part of the DNA packaging module of tailed phages. Interestingly, MuF toxins were abundant in the human gut microbiome. Our results uncovered the presence of the MuF toxin family in the temperate phages of Firmicutes. The MuF toxin family is likely to play an important role in the ecology of the human microbiota where pathogens and commensal species belonging to the Firmicutes are abundant. We propose that MuF toxins could be delivered by phages into host bacteria and either influence the lysogeny decision or serve as bacterial weapons by inhibiting the growth of competing bacteria.

Twitter Demographics

The data shown below were collected from the profiles of 26 tweeters who shared this research output. Click here to find out more about how the information was compiled.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 41 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Unknown 41 100%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Ph. D. Student 8 20%
Researcher 8 20%
Student > Bachelor 5 12%
Student > Master 4 10%
Student > Postgraduate 3 7%
Other 9 22%
Unknown 4 10%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 13 32%
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 10 24%
Immunology and Microbiology 4 10%
Chemistry 2 5%
Unspecified 2 5%
Other 6 15%
Unknown 4 10%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 12. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 29 November 2019.
All research outputs
of 16,294,946 outputs
Outputs from BMC Biology
of 1,412 outputs
Outputs of similar age
of 274,521 outputs
Outputs of similar age from BMC Biology
of 1 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 16,294,946 research outputs across all sources so far. Compared to these this one has done well and is in the 89th percentile: it's in the top 25% of all research outputs ever tracked by Altmetric.
So far Altmetric has tracked 1,412 research outputs from this source. They typically receive a lot more attention than average, with a mean Attention Score of 19.7. This one has gotten more attention than average, scoring higher than 62% of its peers.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 274,521 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one has done well, scoring higher than 84% of its contemporaries.
We're also able to compare this research output to 1 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one has scored higher than all of them