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Plasmodium vivax genetic diversity and heterozygosity in blood samples and resulting oocysts at the Thai–Myanmar border

Overview of attention for article published in Malaria Journal, September 2017
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  • Above-average Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age (62nd percentile)

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7 tweeters

Citations

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5 Dimensions

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13 Mendeley
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Title
Plasmodium vivax genetic diversity and heterozygosity in blood samples and resulting oocysts at the Thai–Myanmar border
Published in
Malaria Journal, September 2017
DOI 10.1186/s12936-017-2002-x
Pubmed ID
Authors

Ingfar Soontarawirat, Chiara Andolina, Richard Paul, Nicholas P. J. Day, Francois Nosten, Charles J. Woodrow, Mallika Imwong

Abstract

Polyclonal blood-stage infections of Plasmodium vivax are frequent even in low transmission settings, allowing meiotic recombination between heterologous parasites. Empirical data on meiotic products are however lacking. This study examined microsatellites in oocysts derived by membrane feeding of mosquitoes from blood-stage P. vivax infections at the Thai-Myanmar border. Blood samples from patients presenting with vivax malaria were fed to Anopheles cracens by membrane feeding and individual oocysts from midguts were obtained by dissection after 7 days. DNA was extracted from oocysts and parental blood samples and tested by microsatellite analysis. A focused study of eight microsatellite markers was undertaken for nine blood stage infections from 2013, for which derived oocysts were studied in six cases. One or more alleles were successfully amplified for 131 oocysts, revealing high levels of allelic diversity in both blood and oocyst stages. Based on standard criteria for defining minor alleles, there was evidence of clear deviation from random mating (inbreeding) with relatively few heterozygous oocysts compared to variance across the entire oocyst population (FIT = 0.89). The main explanation appeared to be natural compartmentalisation at mosquito (FSC = 0.27) and human stages (FCT = 0.68). One single human case produced a total of 431 successfully amplified loci (across 70 oocysts) that were homozygous and identical to parental alleles at all markers, indicating clonal infection and transmission. Heterozygous oocyst alleles were found at 15/176 (8.5%) successfully amplified loci in the other five cases. There was apparently reduced oocyst heterozygosity in individual oocysts compared to diversity within individual mosquitoes (FIS = 0.55), but this may simply reflect the difficulty of detecting minor alleles in oocysts, given the high rate of amplification failure. Inclusion of minor allele peaks (irrespective of height) when matching peaks were found in related blood or oocyst samples, added 11 minor alleles for 9 oocysts, increasing the number of heterozygous loci to 26/176 (14.8%; p = 0.096). There was an apparently low level of heterozygous oocysts but this can be explained by a combination of factors: relatively low complexity of parental infection, natural compartmentalisation in humans and mosquitoes, and the methodological challenge of detecting minor alleles.

Twitter Demographics

The data shown below were collected from the profiles of 7 tweeters who shared this research output. Click here to find out more about how the information was compiled.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 13 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Unknown 13 100%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Researcher 5 38%
Student > Ph. D. Student 3 23%
Student > Master 2 15%
Professor 1 8%
Student > Postgraduate 1 8%
Other 0 0%
Unknown 1 8%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Medicine and Dentistry 8 62%
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 2 15%
Immunology and Microbiology 1 8%
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 1 8%
Unknown 1 8%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 3. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 05 April 2018.
All research outputs
#6,462,380
of 12,761,472 outputs
Outputs from Malaria Journal
#1,787
of 3,745 outputs
Outputs of similar age
#98,283
of 265,034 outputs
Outputs of similar age from Malaria Journal
#1
of 1 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 12,761,472 research outputs across all sources so far. This one is in the 48th percentile – i.e., 48% of other outputs scored the same or lower than it.
So far Altmetric has tracked 3,745 research outputs from this source. They typically receive a little more attention than average, with a mean Attention Score of 5.4. This one has gotten more attention than average, scoring higher than 51% of its peers.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 265,034 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one has gotten more attention than average, scoring higher than 62% of its contemporaries.
We're also able to compare this research output to 1 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one has scored higher than all of them