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Cross-Cultural Color-Odor Associations

Overview of attention for article published in PLOS ONE, July 2014
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About this Attention Score

  • In the top 5% of all research outputs scored by Altmetric
  • High Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age (98th percentile)
  • High Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age and source (95th percentile)

Mentioned by

5 news outlets
3 blogs
33 tweeters
2 patents
1 weibo user
4 Facebook pages
1 Google+ user


41 Dimensions

Readers on

87 Mendeley
1 CiteULike
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Cross-Cultural Color-Odor Associations
Published in
PLOS ONE, July 2014
DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0101651
Pubmed ID

Carmel A. Levitan, Jiana Ren, Andy T. Woods, Sanne Boesveldt, Jason S. Chan, Kirsten J. McKenzie, Michael Dodson, Jai A. Levin, Christine X. R. Leong, Jasper J. F. van den Bosch


Colors and odors are associated; for instance, people typically match the smell of strawberries to the color pink or red. These associations are forms of crossmodal correspondences. Recently, there has been discussion about the extent to which these correspondences arise for structural reasons (i.e., an inherent mapping between color and odor), statistical reasons (i.e., covariance in experience), and/or semantically-mediated reasons (i.e., stemming from language). The present study probed this question by testing color-odor correspondences in 6 different cultural groups (Dutch, Netherlands-residing-Chinese, German, Malay, Malaysian-Chinese, and US residents), using the same set of 14 odors and asking participants to make congruent and incongruent color choices for each odor. We found consistent patterns in color choices for each odor within each culture, showing that participants were making non-random color-odor matches. We used representational dissimilarity analysis to probe for variations in the patterns of color-odor associations across cultures; we found that US and German participants had the most similar patterns of associations, followed by German and Malay participants. The largest group differences were between Malay and Netherlands-resident Chinese participants and between Dutch and Malaysian-Chinese participants. We conclude that culture plays a role in color-odor crossmodal associations, which likely arise, at least in part, through experience.

Twitter Demographics

The data shown below were collected from the profiles of 33 tweeters who shared this research output. Click here to find out more about how the information was compiled.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 87 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
United Kingdom 3 3%
Japan 1 1%
Germany 1 1%
Luxembourg 1 1%
Unknown 81 93%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Ph. D. Student 16 18%
Researcher 14 16%
Student > Master 14 16%
Student > Bachelor 9 10%
Student > Doctoral Student 5 6%
Other 15 17%
Unknown 14 16%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Psychology 26 30%
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 10 11%
Design 6 7%
Computer Science 5 6%
Neuroscience 5 6%
Other 20 23%
Unknown 15 17%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 89. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 23 February 2021.
All research outputs
of 22,380,048 outputs
Outputs from PLOS ONE
of 191,304 outputs
Outputs of similar age
of 204,197 outputs
Outputs of similar age from PLOS ONE
of 2,830 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 22,380,048 research outputs across all sources so far. Compared to these this one has done particularly well and is in the 98th percentile: it's in the top 5% of all research outputs ever tracked by Altmetric.
So far Altmetric has tracked 191,304 research outputs from this source. They typically receive a lot more attention than average, with a mean Attention Score of 15.0. This one has done particularly well, scoring higher than 96% of its peers.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 204,197 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one has done particularly well, scoring higher than 98% of its contemporaries.
We're also able to compare this research output to 2,830 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one has done particularly well, scoring higher than 95% of its contemporaries.