Resveratrol (3,5,4'-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene) is a natural antioxidant polyphenol able to exert a wide range of biological effect on several tissues. Despite its important beneficial properties, it has a low water solubility, which limits its therapeutic applications in humans. Resveratrol also acts as a phytoestrogen that modulates estrogen receptor (ER)-mediated transcription. In addition, it has been shown that ovarian tissues benefit greatly from vitamin D3, which exerts its beneficial effects through VDR receptors. The aim was to evaluate the cooperative effects of resveratrol combined with vitamin D3 on ovarian cells and tissues and some other organs as well. Moreover, the modulation of specific intracellular pathways involving ER and VDR receptors has been studied.
The experiments were performed both in vitro and in vivo, to analyze cell viability, radical oxygen species production, signal transductions through Western Blot, and resveratrol quantification by HPLC.
Cell viability, radical oxygen species production, and intracellular pathways have been studied on CHO-K1 cells. Also, the relative mechanism activated following oral intake in female Wistar rats as animal model was investigated, evaluating bioavailability, biodistribution and signal transduction in heart, kidney, liver and ovarian tissues. Both in in vitro and in vivo experiments, resveratrol exerts more evident effects when administered in combination with vitD in ovarian cells, showing a common biphasic cooperative effect: The role of vitamin D3 in maintaining and supporting the biological activity of resveratrol has been clearly observed. Moreover, resveratrol plus vitamin D3 blood concentrations showed a biphasic absorption rate.
Such results could be used as a fundamental data for the development of new therapies for gynecological conditions, such as hot-flashes.