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Preparation, characterization, and optimization of primaquine-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles

Overview of attention for article published in International Journal of Nanomedicine, August 2014
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Title
Preparation, characterization, and optimization of primaquine-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles
Published in
International Journal of Nanomedicine, August 2014
DOI 10.2147/ijn.s62630
Pubmed ID
Authors

Jeremiah Waweru Gathirwa, Wesley Omwoyo, Bernhards Ogutu, Florence Oloo, Hulda Swai, Lonji Kalombo, Paula Melariri, Geoffrey Maroa

Abstract

Primaquine (PQ) is one of the most widely used antimalarial drugs and is the only available drug that combats the relapsing form of malaria. PQ use in higher doses is limited by severe tissue toxicity including hematological- and gastrointestinal-related side effects. Nanoformulation of drugs in an appropriate drug carrier system has been extensively studied and shown to have the potential to improve bioavailability, thereby enhancing activity, reducing dose frequency, and subsequently reducing toxicity. The aim of this work was to design, synthesize, and characterize PQ-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) (PQ-SLNs) as a potential drug-delivery system. SLNs were prepared by a modified solvent emulsification evaporation method based on a water-in-oil-in-water (w/o/w) double emulsion. The mean particle size, zeta potential, drug loading, and encapsulation efficiency of the PQ-SLNs were 236 nm, +23 mV, 14%, and 75%, respectively. The zeta potential of the SLNs changed dramatically, from -6.54 mV to +23.0 mV, by binding positively charged chitosan as surface modifier. A spherical morphology of PQ-SLNs was seen by scanning electron microscope. In vitro, release profile depicted a steady drug release over 72 hours. Differential scanning calorimeter thermograms demonstrated presence of drug in drug-loaded nanoparticles along with disappearance of decomposition exotherms, suggesting increased physical stability of drug in prepared formulations. Negligible changes in characteristic peaks of drug in Fourier transform infrared spectra indicated absence of any interaction among the various components entrapped in the nanoparticle formulation. The nanoformulated PQ was 20% more effective as compared with conventional oral dose when tested in Plasmodium berghei-infected Swiss albino mice. This study demonstrated an efficient method of forming a nanomedicine delivery system for antimalarial drugs.

Twitter Demographics

The data shown below were collected from the profile of 1 tweeter who shared this research output. Click here to find out more about how the information was compiled.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 128 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
United Kingdom 1 <1%
Spain 1 <1%
India 1 <1%
Brazil 1 <1%
Unknown 124 97%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Master 29 23%
Student > Ph. D. Student 16 13%
Researcher 14 11%
Student > Bachelor 12 9%
Student > Doctoral Student 9 7%
Other 25 20%
Unknown 23 18%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science 31 24%
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 18 14%
Chemistry 12 9%
Medicine and Dentistry 11 9%
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 6 5%
Other 16 13%
Unknown 34 27%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 1. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 16 May 2015.
All research outputs
#2,696,870
of 5,104,484 outputs
Outputs from International Journal of Nanomedicine
#728
of 1,345 outputs
Outputs of similar age
#66,789
of 132,035 outputs
Outputs of similar age from International Journal of Nanomedicine
#12
of 17 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 5,104,484 research outputs across all sources so far. This one is in the 34th percentile – i.e., 34% of other outputs scored the same or lower than it.
So far Altmetric has tracked 1,345 research outputs from this source. They receive a mean Attention Score of 1.7. This one is in the 30th percentile – i.e., 30% of its peers scored the same or lower than it.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 132,035 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one is in the 37th percentile – i.e., 37% of its contemporaries scored the same or lower than it.
We're also able to compare this research output to 17 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one is in the 17th percentile – i.e., 17% of its contemporaries scored the same or lower than it.