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Multiple insecticide resistance in Anopheles gambiae from Tanzania: a major concern for malaria vector control

Overview of attention for article published in Malaria Journal, October 2017
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About this Attention Score

  • In the top 25% of all research outputs scored by Altmetric
  • High Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age (86th percentile)
  • High Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age and source (90th percentile)

Mentioned by

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24 tweeters
googleplus
1 Google+ user

Citations

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23 Dimensions

Readers on

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93 Mendeley
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Title
Multiple insecticide resistance in Anopheles gambiae from Tanzania: a major concern for malaria vector control
Published in
Malaria Journal, October 2017
DOI 10.1186/s12936-017-2087-2
Pubmed ID
Authors

William N. Kisinza, Theresia E. Nkya, Bilali Kabula, Hans J. Overgaard, Dennis J. Massue, Zawadi Mageni, George Greer, Naomi Kaspar, Mahdi Mohamed, Richard Reithinger, Sarah Moore, Lena M. Lorenz, Stephen Magesa

Abstract

Malaria vector control in Tanzania is based on use of long-lasting insecticide treated nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS), which both rely on the use of chemical insecticides. The effectiveness of these control tools is endangered by the development of insecticide resistance in the major malaria vectors. This study was carried out to monitor the susceptibility status of major malaria vectors to insecticides used for IRS and LLINs in mainland Tanzania. Mosquito larvae were collected in 20 sites of Tanzania mainland in 2015. Phenotypic resistance was determined using standard WHO susceptibility tests. Molecular assay were used to determine distribution of Anopheles gambiae sub-species. A microplate assay approach was used for identifying enzyme levels on single mosquitoes from each sites compared with a susceptible reference strain, An. gambiae sensu stricto (s.s.) Kisumu strain. Anopheles arabiensis was the dominant malaria specie in the country, accounting for 52% of the sibling species identified, while An. gambiae s.s. represented 48%. In Arumeru site, the dominant species was An. arabiensis, which was resistant to both pyrethroids (permethrin and deltamethrin), and pirimiphos-methyl, and had significant elevated levels of GSTs, non-specific esterases, and oxidase enzymes. An. arabiensis was also a dominant species in Kilombero and Kondoa sites, both were resistant to permethrin and deltamethrin with significant activity levels of oxidase enzymes. Resistance to bendiocarb was recorded in Ngara site where specie composition is evenly distributed between An. gambiae s.s. and An.arabiensis. Also bendiocarb resistance was recorded in Mbozi site, where An. gambiae s.s. is the dominant species. Overall, this study confirmed resistance to all four insecticide classes in An. gambiae sensu lato in selected locations in Tanzania. Results are discussed in relation to resistance mechanisms and the optimization of resistance management strategies.

Twitter Demographics

The data shown below were collected from the profiles of 24 tweeters who shared this research output. Click here to find out more about how the information was compiled.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 93 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Unknown 93 100%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Researcher 22 24%
Student > Master 21 23%
Student > Ph. D. Student 14 15%
Student > Bachelor 6 6%
Student > Postgraduate 4 4%
Other 10 11%
Unknown 16 17%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 30 32%
Medicine and Dentistry 12 13%
Environmental Science 8 9%
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 7 8%
Immunology and Microbiology 4 4%
Other 12 13%
Unknown 20 22%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 15. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 11 November 2017.
All research outputs
#1,334,422
of 15,622,089 outputs
Outputs from Malaria Journal
#299
of 4,430 outputs
Outputs of similar age
#43,191
of 322,235 outputs
Outputs of similar age from Malaria Journal
#47
of 491 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 15,622,089 research outputs across all sources so far. Compared to these this one has done particularly well and is in the 91st percentile: it's in the top 10% of all research outputs ever tracked by Altmetric.
So far Altmetric has tracked 4,430 research outputs from this source. They typically receive a little more attention than average, with a mean Attention Score of 6.0. This one has done particularly well, scoring higher than 93% of its peers.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 322,235 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one has done well, scoring higher than 86% of its contemporaries.
We're also able to compare this research output to 491 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one has done particularly well, scoring higher than 90% of its contemporaries.