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Multiple insecticide resistance in Anopheles gambiae from Tanzania: a major concern for malaria vector control

Overview of attention for article published in Malaria Journal, October 2017
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About this Attention Score

  • In the top 25% of all research outputs scored by Altmetric
  • High Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age (88th percentile)
  • High Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age and source (91st percentile)

Mentioned by

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29 tweeters
googleplus
1 Google+ user

Citations

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27 Dimensions

Readers on

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104 Mendeley
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Title
Multiple insecticide resistance in Anopheles gambiae from Tanzania: a major concern for malaria vector control
Published in
Malaria Journal, October 2017
DOI 10.1186/s12936-017-2087-2
Pubmed ID
Authors

William N. Kisinza, Theresia E. Nkya, Bilali Kabula, Hans J. Overgaard, Dennis J. Massue, Zawadi Mageni, George Greer, Naomi Kaspar, Mahdi Mohamed, Richard Reithinger, Sarah Moore, Lena M. Lorenz, Stephen Magesa

Abstract

Malaria vector control in Tanzania is based on use of long-lasting insecticide treated nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS), which both rely on the use of chemical insecticides. The effectiveness of these control tools is endangered by the development of insecticide resistance in the major malaria vectors. This study was carried out to monitor the susceptibility status of major malaria vectors to insecticides used for IRS and LLINs in mainland Tanzania. Mosquito larvae were collected in 20 sites of Tanzania mainland in 2015. Phenotypic resistance was determined using standard WHO susceptibility tests. Molecular assay were used to determine distribution of Anopheles gambiae sub-species. A microplate assay approach was used for identifying enzyme levels on single mosquitoes from each sites compared with a susceptible reference strain, An. gambiae sensu stricto (s.s.) Kisumu strain. Anopheles arabiensis was the dominant malaria specie in the country, accounting for 52% of the sibling species identified, while An. gambiae s.s. represented 48%. In Arumeru site, the dominant species was An. arabiensis, which was resistant to both pyrethroids (permethrin and deltamethrin), and pirimiphos-methyl, and had significant elevated levels of GSTs, non-specific esterases, and oxidase enzymes. An. arabiensis was also a dominant species in Kilombero and Kondoa sites, both were resistant to permethrin and deltamethrin with significant activity levels of oxidase enzymes. Resistance to bendiocarb was recorded in Ngara site where specie composition is evenly distributed between An. gambiae s.s. and An.arabiensis. Also bendiocarb resistance was recorded in Mbozi site, where An. gambiae s.s. is the dominant species. Overall, this study confirmed resistance to all four insecticide classes in An. gambiae sensu lato in selected locations in Tanzania. Results are discussed in relation to resistance mechanisms and the optimization of resistance management strategies.

Twitter Demographics

The data shown below were collected from the profiles of 29 tweeters who shared this research output. Click here to find out more about how the information was compiled.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 104 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Unknown 104 100%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Master 24 23%
Researcher 22 21%
Student > Ph. D. Student 15 14%
Student > Postgraduate 5 5%
Student > Bachelor 5 5%
Other 14 13%
Unknown 19 18%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 34 33%
Medicine and Dentistry 12 12%
Environmental Science 8 8%
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 8 8%
Immunology and Microbiology 5 5%
Other 17 16%
Unknown 20 19%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 18. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 12 November 2017.
All research outputs
#1,146,017
of 15,922,434 outputs
Outputs from Malaria Journal
#235
of 4,495 outputs
Outputs of similar age
#37,207
of 323,345 outputs
Outputs of similar age from Malaria Journal
#41
of 491 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 15,922,434 research outputs across all sources so far. Compared to these this one has done particularly well and is in the 92nd percentile: it's in the top 10% of all research outputs ever tracked by Altmetric.
So far Altmetric has tracked 4,495 research outputs from this source. They typically receive a little more attention than average, with a mean Attention Score of 6.0. This one has done particularly well, scoring higher than 94% of its peers.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 323,345 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one has done well, scoring higher than 88% of its contemporaries.
We're also able to compare this research output to 491 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one has done particularly well, scoring higher than 91% of its contemporaries.