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Hap2, a novel gene in Babesia bigemina is expressed in tick stages, and specific antibodies block zygote formation

Overview of attention for article published in Parasites & Vectors, November 2017
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5 Dimensions

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14 Mendeley
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Title
Hap2, a novel gene in Babesia bigemina is expressed in tick stages, and specific antibodies block zygote formation
Published in
Parasites & Vectors, November 2017
DOI 10.1186/s13071-017-2510-0
Pubmed ID
Authors

Minerva Camacho-Nuez, Diego Josimar Hernández-Silva, Elizabeth Jacqueline Castañeda-Ortiz, María Elena Paredes-Martínez, Marisol Karina Rocha-Martínez, María Elizbeth Alvarez-Sánchez, Ricardo Francisco Mercado-Curiel, Gabriela Aguilar-Tipacamu, Juan Mosqueda

Abstract

Bovine babesiosis is a tick-borne disease caused by the protozoan parasites of the genus Babesia. In their host vector, Babesia spp. undergo sexual reproduction. Therefore, the development of sexual stages and the subsequent formation of the zygote are essential for the parasite to invade the intestinal cells of the vector tick and continue its life-cycle. HAP2/GCS1 is a protein identified in plants, protozoan parasites and other organisms that has an important role during membrane fusion in fertilization processes. The identification and characterization of HAP-2 protein in Babesia would be very significant to understand the biology of the parasite and to develop a transmission-blocking vaccine in the future. To isolate and sequence the hap2 gene DNA from an infected bovine with Babesia bigemina was purified. The hap2 gene was amplified, cloned and sequenced. The sequences of hap2 from four geographically different strains showed high conservation at the amino acid level, including the typical structure with a signal peptide and the HAP2/GSC domain. Antisera anti-HAP2 against the conserved extracellular region of the HAP2 amino acid sequence were obtained from rabbits. The expression of hap2 in the host and vector tissues was analyzed by using semi-quantitative RT-PCR, and the protein was examined by western blot and immunofluorescence. Based on the RT-PCR and WB results, HAP2 is expressed in both, sexual stages induced in vitro, and in infected ticks as well. We did not detect any expression in asexual erythrocytic stages of B. bigemina, relevantly anti-HAP2 specific antibodies were able to block zygotes formation in vitro. Babesia bigemina HAP2 is expressed only in tick-infecting stages, and specific antibodies block zygote formation. Further studies regarding the function of HAP2 during tick infection may provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms of sexual reproduction of the parasite.

Twitter Demographics

The data shown below were collected from the profiles of 3 tweeters who shared this research output. Click here to find out more about how the information was compiled.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 14 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Unknown 14 100%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Master 4 29%
Unspecified 3 21%
Other 2 14%
Professor 2 14%
Student > Ph. D. Student 2 14%
Other 1 7%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine 4 29%
Unspecified 3 21%
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 3 21%
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 2 14%
Immunology and Microbiology 1 7%
Other 1 7%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 2. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 12 December 2017.
All research outputs
#7,062,214
of 12,287,089 outputs
Outputs from Parasites & Vectors
#1,465
of 3,111 outputs
Outputs of similar age
#135,527
of 284,463 outputs
Outputs of similar age from Parasites & Vectors
#91
of 209 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 12,287,089 research outputs across all sources so far. This one is in the 40th percentile – i.e., 40% of other outputs scored the same or lower than it.
So far Altmetric has tracked 3,111 research outputs from this source. They receive a mean Attention Score of 4.5. This one is in the 49th percentile – i.e., 49% of its peers scored the same or lower than it.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 284,463 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one is in the 49th percentile – i.e., 49% of its contemporaries scored the same or lower than it.
We're also able to compare this research output to 209 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one has gotten more attention than average, scoring higher than 52% of its contemporaries.