Hyperoside (Hyp) is a flavonoid glycoside compound that has been demonstrated to have anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic and antioxidant effects. However, the impact of Hyp on inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has not been previously explored. Thus, we evaluated the role of Hyp in dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced acute colitis in mice.
We established a mouse model of experimental acute colitis by treating mice with drinking water supplemented with 3.0% DSS for 7 days. The disease activity index (DAI), colon length, histological features and colonic malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were examined using appropriate methods, and COX-2 expression was examined by immunohistochemistry. TNF-α, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, NF-κB p65, Bcl-2, Bax, Caspase-3, nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), hemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels in colorectal tissues were detected by RT-PCR and western blotting.
Hyp significantly attenuated DSS-induced changes in the DAI as well as DSS-induced colonic shortening and histological changes. Hyp also inhibited inflammation, a change reflected by decreases in TNF-α, IL-6, COX-2 and NF-κB p65 expression and increases in IL-10 expression. Hyp suppressed increases in the levels of apoptosis-related proteins, such as Caspase-3 and Bax, but upregulated the level of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl2. In addition, Hyp also exerted antioxidant effects. The MDA content was decreased, and the expression of Nrf2 and its downstream targets HO-1 and SOD were increased by Hyp.
Based on these findings, Hyp possesses the ability to attenuate colitis, possibly by mitigating colonic inflammation and apoptosis via activation of the Nrf2 signaling pathway.