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Large Graphene Quantum Dots Alleviate Immune-Mediated Liver Damage

Overview of attention for article published in ACS Nano, December 2014
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Large Graphene Quantum Dots Alleviate Immune-Mediated Liver Damage
Published in
ACS Nano, December 2014
DOI 10.1021/nn502466z
Pubmed ID

Vladislav Volarevic, Verica Paunovic, Zoran Markovic, Bojana Simovic Markovic, Maja Misirkic-Marjanovic, Biljana Todorovic-Markovic, Sanja Bojic, Ljubica Vucicevic, Svetlana Jovanovic, Nebojsa Arsenijevic, Ivanka Holclajtner-Antunovic, Momir Milosavljevic, Miroslav Dramicanin, Tamara Kravic-Stevovic, Darko Ciric, Miodrag L. Lukic, Vladimir Trajkovic


We investigated the effect of large (40 nm) graphene quantum dots (GQDs) in concanavalin A (Con A; 12 mg/kg i.v.)-induced mouse hepatitis, a T cell-mediated liver injury resembling fulminant hepatitis in humans. Intravenously injected GQDs (50 mg/kg) accumulated in liver and reduced Con A-mediated liver damage, as demonstrated by histopathological analysis and a decrease in liver lipid peroxidation and serum levels of liver transaminases. The cleavage of apoptotic markers caspase-3/PARP and mRNA levels of proapoptotic mediators Puma, Noxa, Bax, Bak1, Bim, Apaf1, and p21, as well as LC3-I conversion to autophagosome-associated LC3-II and expression of autophagy-related (Atg) genes Atg4b, Atg7, Atg12, and beclin-1, were attenuated by GQDs, indicating a decrease in both apoptosis and autophagy in the liver tissue. This was associated with the reduced liver infiltration of immune cells, particularly the T cells producing proinflammatory cytokine IFN-γ, and a decrease in IFN-γ serum levels. In the spleen of GQD-exposed mice, mRNA expression of IFN-γ and its transcription factor T-bet was reduced, while that of the IL-33 ligand ST2 was increased. The hepatoprotective effect of GQDs was less pronounced in ST2-deficient mice, indicating that it might depend on ST2 upregulation. In vitro, GQDs inhibited splenocyte IFN-γ production, reduced the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase in macrophage and T cell lines, inhibited macrophage production of the free radical nitric oxide, and reduced its cytotoxicity toward hepatocyte cell line HepG2. Therefore, GQDs alleviate immune-mediated fulminant hepatitis by interfering with T cell and macrophage activation and possibly by exerting a direct hepatoprotective effect.

Twitter Demographics

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Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 79 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Serbia 2 3%
India 1 1%
Unknown 76 96%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Ph. D. Student 16 20%
Researcher 13 16%
Professor 6 8%
Student > Postgraduate 5 6%
Student > Master 5 6%
Other 16 20%
Unknown 18 23%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Chemistry 9 11%
Materials Science 8 10%
Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science 7 9%
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 6 8%
Engineering 6 8%
Other 18 23%
Unknown 25 32%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 3. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 06 December 2014.
All research outputs
of 22,771,140 outputs
Outputs from ACS Nano
of 12,802 outputs
Outputs of similar age
of 360,883 outputs
Outputs of similar age from ACS Nano
of 210 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 22,771,140 research outputs across all sources so far. This one is in the 43rd percentile – i.e., 43% of other outputs scored the same or lower than it.
So far Altmetric has tracked 12,802 research outputs from this source. They typically receive a lot more attention than average, with a mean Attention Score of 14.4. This one is in the 35th percentile – i.e., 35% of its peers scored the same or lower than it.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 360,883 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one has gotten more attention than average, scoring higher than 53% of its contemporaries.
We're also able to compare this research output to 210 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one is in the 38th percentile – i.e., 38% of its contemporaries scored the same or lower than it.