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Evolution and forcing mechanisms of El Niño over the past 21,000 years

Overview of attention for article published in Nature, November 2014
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  • In the top 5% of all research outputs scored by Altmetric
  • High Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age (98th percentile)
  • Above-average Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age and source (63rd percentile)

Mentioned by

5 news outlets
4 blogs
32 tweeters
1 Facebook page
1 Google+ user


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Readers on

242 Mendeley
2 CiteULike
Evolution and forcing mechanisms of El Niño over the past 21,000 years
Published in
Nature, November 2014
DOI 10.1038/nature13963
Pubmed ID

Zhengyu Liu, Zhengyao Lu, Xinyu Wen, B. L. Otto-Bliesner, A. Timmermann, K. M. Cobb


The El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is Earth's dominant source of interannual climate variability, but its response to global warming remains highly uncertain. To improve our understanding of ENSO's sensitivity to external climate forcing, it is paramount to determine its past behaviour by using palaeoclimate data and model simulations. Palaeoclimate records show that ENSO has varied considerably since the Last Glacial Maximum (21,000 years ago), and some data sets suggest a gradual intensification of ENSO over the past ∼6,000 years. Previous attempts to simulate the transient evolution of ENSO have relied on simplified models or snapshot experiments. Here we analyse a series of transient Coupled General Circulation Model simulations forced by changes in greenhouse gasses, orbital forcing, the meltwater discharge and the ice-sheet history throughout the past 21,000 years. Consistent with most palaeo-ENSO reconstructions, our model simulates an orbitally induced strengthening of ENSO during the Holocene epoch, which is caused by increasing positive ocean-atmosphere feedbacks. During the early deglaciation, ENSO characteristics change drastically in response to meltwater discharges and the resulting changes in the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation and equatorial annual cycle. Increasing deglacial atmospheric CO2 concentrations tend to weaken ENSO, whereas retreating glacial ice sheets intensify ENSO. The complex evolution of forcings and ENSO feedbacks and the uncertainties in the reconstruction further highlight the challenge and opportunity for constraining future ENSO responses.

Twitter Demographics

The data shown below were collected from the profiles of 32 tweeters who shared this research output. Click here to find out more about how the information was compiled.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 242 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
United States 8 3%
China 3 1%
United Kingdom 3 1%
Canada 2 <1%
Brazil 2 <1%
Mexico 2 <1%
Sweden 1 <1%
Australia 1 <1%
Ireland 1 <1%
Other 3 1%
Unknown 216 89%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Ph. D. Student 60 25%
Researcher 58 24%
Student > Master 23 10%
Student > Bachelor 18 7%
Student > Postgraduate 11 5%
Other 47 19%
Unknown 25 10%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Earth and Planetary Sciences 129 53%
Environmental Science 31 13%
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 16 7%
Physics and Astronomy 7 3%
Engineering 4 2%
Other 19 8%
Unknown 36 15%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 85. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 19 May 2019.
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Altmetric has tracked 13,845,249 research outputs across all sources so far. Compared to these this one has done particularly well and is in the 98th percentile: it's in the top 5% of all research outputs ever tracked by Altmetric.
So far Altmetric has tracked 70,682 research outputs from this source. They typically receive a lot more attention than average, with a mean Attention Score of 77.9. This one has done well, scoring higher than 80% of its peers.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 299,611 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one has done particularly well, scoring higher than 98% of its contemporaries.
We're also able to compare this research output to 908 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one has gotten more attention than average, scoring higher than 63% of its contemporaries.