Migraine has been recognized as one of the leading causes of disability in the 2013 Global Burden of Disease Study and seriously affects the quality of patients' life, current treatment options are not ideal. Monoclonal antibodies to calcitonin gene-related peptide and its receptor (CGRP-mAbs) appear more promising for migraine because of considerably better effect and safety profiles. The objective of this study is to systematically assess the clinical efficacy and safety of CGRP-mAbs for migraine therapy.
A systematic literature search in PubMed, Cochrane Library and Baidu Scholar was performed to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs), which compared the effect and safety of CGRP-mAbs with placebo on migraine. Regarding the efficacy, the reduction of monthly migraine days from baseline to weeks 1-4, 5-8, and 9-12; responder rates were extracted as the outcome measures of the effects of CGRP-mAbs. Regarding the safety, total adverse events, the main adverse events, and other adverse events were evaluated.
We found significant reduction of monthly migraine days in CGRP-mAbs vs. placebo (weeks 1-4: SMD -0.49, 95% CI -0.61 to -0.36; weeks 5-8: SMD -0.43, 95% CI -0.56 to -0.30; weeks 9-12: SMD -0.37, 95% CI -0.49 to -0.24). 50% and 75% responder rates (OR 2.59, 95% CI 1.99 to 3.37; and OR 2.91, 95% CI 2.06 to 4.10) were significantly increased compared with placebo. There was no significant difference in total adverse events (OR 1.17, 95% CI 0.91 to 1.51), and the main adverse events including upper respiratory tract infection (OR 1.44, 95% CI 0.82 to 2.55), nasopharyngitis (OR 0.59, 95% CI 0.30 to 1.16), nausea (OR 0.61, 95% CI 0.29 to 1.32), injection-site pain (OR 1.73, 95% CI 0.95 to 3.16) and back pain (OR 0.97, 95% CI 0.49 to 1.90) were not obviously changed compared with placebo control, but the results showed significant increase of dizziness in CGRP-mAbs vs. placebo (OR 3.22, 95% CI 1.09 to 9.45).
This meta-analysis suggests that CGRP-mAbs are effective in anti-migraine therapy with few adverse reactions, but more and larger sample-size RCTs are required to verify the current findings.