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Temperament and character traits in major depressive disorder: a case control study

Overview of attention for article published in Sao Paulo Medical Journal, October 2017
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Temperament and character traits in major depressive disorder: a case control study
Published in
Sao Paulo Medical Journal, October 2017
DOI 10.1590/1516-3180.2017.0063250517
Pubmed ID

Nogueira, Barbara Schwair, Fraguas Júnior, Renerio, Benseñor, Isabela Martins, Lotufo, Paulo Andrade, Brunoni, Andre Russowsky


Patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) have distinct personality traits, compared with control subjects, although the role of anxiety and positive and negative affects in this finding is unclear. A case-control study enrolling 103 antidepressant-free depressed patients and 103 age and gender-matched controls was conducted at the University Hospital, University of São Paulo. The self-reported scales of the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and Cloninger's Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) were applied. Temperament and character traits were compared between groups using multivariate and bivariate analyses of variance (MANOVA and ANOVA). The influence of anxiety and affect was further investigated using ANOVA and mediation analyses. Depressed patients presented higher harm avoidance and lower self-directedness scores than controls. After adjustment for anxiety trait, harm avoidance was no longer significantly different between groups. Mediation analysis revealed that the anxiety trait, but not state-anxiety or affect, fully mediated the influence of group (depressed versus control subjects) on harm avoidance. Our findings confirm that depressed patients present personality traits distinct from those of controls and suggest that MDD is not directly associated with harm avoidance, but that this effect is fully mediated through the anxiety trait.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 30 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Unknown 30 100%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Other 4 13%
Student > Bachelor 4 13%
Student > Ph. D. Student 4 13%
Student > Postgraduate 2 7%
Researcher 2 7%
Other 5 17%
Unknown 9 30%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Psychology 8 27%
Neuroscience 4 13%
Medicine and Dentistry 3 10%
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 1 3%
Chemistry 1 3%
Other 2 7%
Unknown 11 37%