To evaluate pulmonary function in the first and third trimesters of pregnancy and analyze the influence of parity and smoking on spirometry parameters.
This longitudinal prospective study included a cohort of 120 pregnant women. The inclusion criteria were as follows: singleton pregnancy, gestational age less than 13.86 weeks, and no preexisting maternal diseases. The exclusion criteria were as follows: change of address, abortion, and inadequate spirometry testing. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02807038.
A decrease in values of forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume were noted in the first second from the first to third trimester. In the first and third trimesters, multiparous women demonstrated lower absolute forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume values in the first second compared with nulliparous women (p<0.0001 and p=0.001, respectively). Multiparous women demonstrated reduced forced expiratory flow in 25% to 75% of the maneuver compared with nulliparous women in the first (p=0.005) and third (p=0.031) trimesters. The absolute values of forced expiratory flow in 25% to 75%, forced expiratory volume in the first second and predicted peak expiratory flow values in the third trimester were higher in smokers compared with nonsmokers (p=0.042, p=0.039, p=0.024, and p=0.021, respectively).
There was a significant reduction in forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume values in the first second during pregnancy. Parity and smoking significantly influence spirometric variables.